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Or - So you thought you knew everything about the MacGregors and the Picts
(Including many little-known facts that some don't want you to know)

All men admit the clan Gregor to be the purest branch of the ancient race of Scotland now in existence. - true descendents, in short, of the native Celtic stock of the country, and unmixed by blood with immigrants either of their own or of any other race.   About this point there is no dispute; and the name of clan Alpine, commonly adopted by them for centuries, would almost alone suffice to prove their descent from the Albiones, the first known inhabitants of Scotland.  Condensed from "Clans of the highlands of Scotland", Thomas Smibert, 1850.


Amazing Facts of the MacGregors & the Picts of Alba
You Would Never Have Guessed

(No particular order)

Believe it or not, the first symbol of the Pict Kingdom was the bull.

The Spirit of the Highlands

This particular purebred is my alpha female, with a one year old bull calf as big as her already.  When this photo was taken, she had just run out of the woods to see what I was up to.  This particular lady broke through a fence, and was out in the open forest (which was infested with brush wolves) for four days.  She later appeared without a mark on her.   Highland cattle are not afraid of wolves !!   Once I went into her space to chase other cows away so she and her calf could eat grain, and she came up behind me and tossed me four feet in the air.  Obviously, she did not want my assistance.

My three foundation cows came from a 600 acre spread where they were never handled, so they are in effect wild cattle, and are dangerous to approach without precautions.

The "Hyland" or "Highland" cattle of Scotland are direct descendents of the original wild cattle of northern Europe.  They developed their shaggy coats to cope with the harsh winters, their split hoofs to navigate the rocky mountainous regions they prefer, and their short front legs to lower their center of gravity (for better stability).  They have retained the small head, tiny ears, massive horns, and the narrow hips of the original wild cattle. 

As with their human Scottish co-habitants, they are fiercely defensive of their families, and will form a protective ring around their youngsters when threatened.  They will shake their heads to warn antagonists of the potential of their powerful horns, and that usually wards off any predators.  

They come in red, white or black, but most are red like this one.  They are one of only a few types of cattle that can be left in a large range area, and will successfully fend for themselves.  They will thrive on bushes and saplings as well as poor quality grasses where lesser cattle could not survive.


This is Newton, a  purebred Highland bull in his summer coat.  He is well-mannered.  His shaggy coat is designed to ensure he is warm on the coldest of days.

Heather, cleaning off her first born calf, Hester, 14 Feb 2006.  Hester is now bigger than her mother.

BossLady's newest calf 06 Feb 2008.

Crooked horns and her new baby, Kahlua - 14 Feb 2008
Kahlua is special to me, as I had to bring her inside to put her under a heat lamp to save her life, and I bottle-fed her for several months.  Her mother was not impressed.

Highlands have a double coat of hair - a downy undercoat and a long outer coat which may reach 13 inches, and which is well-oiled to shed rain and snow. With the double coat of hair and thick hide, the Highland has been adapted by nature to withstand great exposure. It is not uncommon for Highlands to shed this heavy hair coat when exposed to a hot dry climate and then grow a new one as the damp cold weather returns

.Chow time
Feeding time in the morning, with some goats and chickens picking up whatever is spilled

Highlands have a highly developed mothering instinct.  I have seen a second female act as midwife to a new mother in delivering her calf and help in removing the birth membrane, each cow working from its end of the calf.   The new mother appears to be completely at ease with another female helping her, and appreciates the assistance.

Some other unique traits of Highlands:
*  They can growl like a dog - and bite.
*  They don't get along with other kinds of cattle.
*  They can run faster than any human.

*  Hyland meat is on a par with Bison meat, in that it is a level above ordinary beef with low cholesterol.
*  They are exceptionally affectionate to each other, and will lick another individual in the face to cement a relationship.
*  They are a northern breed and do not do well in a hot environment.
*  They have no respect for fences.
*  The bull has a call much like that of the bull Elk (Wapiti).
*  Other cattle will run away from wolves.  Highlands will run towards wolves.
*  Like none other, Highlands delight in standing in chest deep water to cool off - so.
*  Don't expect an unfenced river or lake to contain them.
*  Highlands have small heads.   Why?  To have less heat loss and for easier birthing.

This Highland cow will tolerate goat kids playing on her back.

No, this is not the latest Highland hairdo.  It is the result of BossLady getting caught up in an overhead netting.  I had to gingerly cut her out of it.  With her patient help of course (by standing still for me).  Perhaps it helps keep the flies off her face.

In North America, Highlands were first imported to Canada's provinces of Ontario and Nova Scotia from Scotland, then some were introduced to the United States.

These were the tough little cattle that the Picts depended on for sustenance throughout their long turbulent history.  Believe it or not, these magnificent creatures, with their family values, their hardiness, and their natural beauty, are truly the very -

 "Spirit if the Highlands".

Highland cattle cooling off in Loch Lomond, Scotland

1.  Where and how did the term "Blackmail" originate?

The term "Blackmail" was coined by the cattle insurance that farmers of the central and eastern Lowlands paid to Highland Chiefs along their northern borders.  This rent was sanctioned by the government, and Rob Roy became the most renowned of all who were engaged in those duties called the "Watch".   The word, "mail", meant rent in those days.  Black, because the Angus cattle were black.  

Rob was an insurance salesman.  He  guaranteed his customers any stolen cattle would be retrieved within a certain time period or a similar herd would be substituted.  Most raiders stayed away from herds that bore his insurance, as they knew full well that Rob would hunt them down and take the cattle back, often in a rather violent manner.  Many considered Rob's business a scam, as it was well known that those who spurned Rob's offer of insurance would sooner or later be victims of cattle thievery, so the term blackmail took on a sinister meaning.

In Rob's defence, other Highlanders would take advantage of an "uninsured" herd as they knew Rob and his Glengyle clansmen would not hunt them down.  Therefore, to offer protection as a scam became known as "blackmail".  To render this business more complicated, those raiders who were merely passing through Glengyle clan property with a stolen herd, but were not stealing from any of Rob's insured herds, paid him a remittance as a guarantee of safe passage.

2.  Who was the first honorary Colonel of the Black Watch Regiment?

Arguably the most renowned and decorated regiment in the British Army, the Black Watch (Royal 72nd Regiment) was established to replace Rob Roy's band of MacGregors (after the reinstated proscription of the MacGregors under William of Orange) to keep a watch on the black cattle of the Lowlanders so the adjacent Highlanders would not steal them.  Who was the first honorary Colonel of the Regiment? 
None other than Rob Roy  himself.

3.  When was the first attempt to raise Highland troops by the British Parliament?
    And why was it put aside?

In AD 1737, Duncan Forbes of Culloden, proposed the raising of two regiments of loyal Highlanders to prevent another Jacobite uprising, and to provide efficient troops for the continental wars. It was turned down by the English Parliament because of the fear that giving these Highland troops heavy weapons would enable them to conquer England.

4.  Did Bonnie Prince Charlie ever set foot in Britain after the failed 1745 rebellion?
    And if so, did the British authorities make any attempt to detain him?

Prince Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charley) actually visited London in 1750, five years after Culloden, in a vain attempt to enlist his Tory friends.  His presence was known by the government, but no attempt was made to detain him.

5.  What British Naval Officer became the "father" of the Russian Imperial Navy?

Although a British Naval officer named Samuel Greig (aka MacGregor) was loaned to the Russian Imperial Navy on the request of Catherine the Great, and was promoted to Grand Admiral, and was responsible for the Russian naval victory at Hogeland in 1788, which put an end to Swedish ambitions in Europe, and was later honored by the Russians with a national holiday, his name has never appeared in the Encyclopedia Britannica.

6.  Who decreed the end to the first proscription of the MacGregors, and why?

The first repeal of the proscriptions against the MacGregors was decreed by Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of England, not because of any love for the MacGregors but because of his sense of fair play and his opposition to fanaticism.

7.  Who decreed the re-imposition of the proscription of the MacGregors, and why?

In 1693, William of Orange, under the instigation of the Earl of Stair, his Campbell overlord of Scotland, decreed the second proscription as a means to settling scores with the MacGregors, who had been stalwarts and beneficiaries of the Stuarts under Charles II.

8.  How did Alasdair MacGregor of Glenstrae react when he heard that King James VI had granted the Laird of Luss a commission of "Fire and Sword" against the MacGregors?

In 1602, upon hearing of the threat, Alasdair of Glenstrae, the recognized Chief of the Clan, sent the fiery cross not only throughout the lands occupied by MacGregors but also into Glencoe and Rannoch to successfully enlist the support of the MacIans and the Camerons therein. 

9.  When was the Fiery cross last used to gather all Clan Gregor men and their allies to battle? 

In 1745, the last Jacobite rebellion.

10.  Was Rob Roy ever the actual Chief of the Clan Gregor ?

No, he was the third son of Lt. Colonel Donald Glas of Glengyle, a chieftain of the Doughal Ciar (Glengyle) branch .  However, he was proclaimed acting Chief of the Glengyle Branch (Clan Dughaill Ciar) after his after died, and when he assumed guardianship of the heir, young Gregor.  But in 1715, and again in 1719, during those two failed Jacobite uprisings,  Rob was proclaimed temporary War Chief of the entire clan, which entitled him to wear the three eagle's feathers of a chief.  The appointment of a War Chief was an old Celtic practice.

11.  How many children did Rob Roy MacGregor of Inversnaid and Mary MacGregor of Comar have?

It is generally accepted they had ten or more children.  There is recorded proof of five surviving sons + one daughter.  They were James, known as Mohr (from the Gaelic word for big), Ranald, Duncan, Coll, and Robert , (known as Robin Oig) (from the Gaelic name for youngest).  Although Duncan's parentage is not certain.  There was one recorded daughter, Lucie, and probably another daughter, Margaret  Some records state that half their children died at an early age, and were not officially recorded.

12.  What was the peculiar connection between Robert Roy MacGregor and Robert the Bruce?  
In 1306, Robert the Bruce, when his fortunes were at a very low ebb, hid out in a cave by the side of Loch Lomond.  Rob also took refuge in that same cave when he was a fugitive.

13.  In what army did Rob Roy's father, Donald Glas MacGregor, attain the rank of Lieutenant Colonel?

In the Scottish army of King Charles II.  (In those days, Scotland and England had separate  armies.)

14.  What ever happened to the disputed farming area originally occupied by MacGregors, but in the 17th century, was occupied by the MacLaurins, (a sept of the Stewarts of Appin),  which was the scene of a near battle between Rob Roy's MacGregors and a larger force of Stewarts, and was only averted by the astute backing off of an elderly Rob Roy after he and a young Stewart champion dueled, and Rob received a slight wound? 

Note: All those farms are now the property of the chief of clan Gregor, having been purchased by the MacGregor GlenCarnoch branch about 1798, from the Commissioners of the Forfeited Estates.

15.  What was the actual name and origin of Saint Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland?  Under what circumstances did he arrive in Ireland?

He was born into a Pict Christian family in 387-390 AD, as Maewyn Succat (warlike).  Like many young Picts, he was kidnapped and sold as a slave and shipped off to Ireland.  He worked as a shepherd and spent most of his spare time in prayer.  He eventually escaped and fled to the continent, where he studied in several monasteries.  He eventually became a Bishop and was sent by Pope Celestine to Britain to evangelize England and Ireland.  He was most successful in Ireland, and completely converted Ireland to Christianity within 33 years.  In the Middle Ages, Ireland became known as the Land of Saints, and during the Dark Ages, its many monasteries were the great repositories of learning in Europe, all because of Saint Patrick.  He died at Saul, County Down in 461-464 AD.

16.  What is the origin of the Scottish Gaelic name for church: "Kirk"?

After the death of King Grig, (Gregor in English) a church in Kincardineshire, and a surrounding parish were named "Ecclesia Cirig", after him (Cirig being the Latin form for Grig, and pronounced "kirg" in both Pict and Gaelic)It was later corrupted to "Cill-Cirig", and it was eventually Anglicized to Selkirk.  Gradually, the Scottish word "Kirk" came to denote church.

17.  What Pict legacy did King Grig legislate to be implemented after his death?
      How long was this legacy maintained?

With Grig's death in AD889, the name of the succeeding Picto-Scot line of kings' titles, instead of being in the previous Latin form "Rex Pictorum," became "Ri Albain", which was unintelligible to all except the Picts. - and was maintained until after MacBeth's death in AD1056, a length of 167 years.

18Why was the above title unintelligible to all except the Picts?

The Latin form for king is Rex.  The Irish and Scottish Gaelic form is Rìgh.  The Welsh P-Celtic form is Brenin,  The Breton P-Celtic form is Roue, only the Pict form was Ri. 

19.  When was the last person executed in the Pict tradition in Scotland?

In 1820, a James Wilson, was beheaded (after being hanged) on Glasgow Green, for leading a protest march against the rampant starvation of the time.

20.  How did Loch Katrine get its name?

An early Gaelic name was recorded as being "Loch Ceathairneach" , which means, in English, Loch of the Outlaws. (Referring of course to the MacGregors).  Ceathairneach sounds like Katarnik to English ears, so it eventually became "Katrine".

21.  What were the origins of the Clan Grant?  When, where, and under what circumstances was this proven? 

The Grants are descended from Gregor Mohr MacGregor, second son of Malcolm, Morear nan Castal.  They carry the same Suaitheanntas or mark of distinction, i.e. a branch of fir, and as the MacGregors carried an imperial crown proper, in the shield, the Grants assumed three crowns, as a mark of cadency. So true it is they esteemed themselves one people, that for fourteen days at the end of 1725 and the beginning of 1726, there was a celebrated meeting between those two Clans at Blair-Atholl, in order that they should assume one surname.

This was an attempt to circumvent the devastating proscription of the Clan Gregor by combining the two Clans and assuming a name which would not be proscribed e.g.. MacAlpine.  The conference objective failed due to petty bickering, although some delegates did assume the old name, MacAlpin.

22What remnants of the Pict language remain in Scotland?

In parts of Scotland, people still speak with a Pict accent, rather than Gaelic, e.g..  "W" is still pronounced as "F", (which is not a Gaelic linguistic phenomenon).

23.  During the First General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, which took place in Glasgow in 1638, what precautions were taken to protect visiting clergy, and from what?

The clergy were in such fear of marauding bands of MacGregors that two Army regiments were brought in to guard facilities, and all officials were continually escorted by armed bodyguards.   Note: Glasgow, although home to a Cathedral for centuries,  at that time had a population of only 7,000.

24.  What was the significance of the three feathers worn only by the Chief of the Clan Gregor?

They signified three MacGregor Glens; Orchy, Lochy, and Strae.

25.  When the MacLivers and MacIvers, (the MacGregors of Glen Lyon), were massacred by the Stuarts, what MacGregor family successfully claimed their senior seat on the Clan council?

The  MacGregors of Roro.

26.  What was the relationship between the Campbell Earl of Stair, (the one who instigated and planned the Glen Coe massacre) with Rob Roy MacGregor?

He was the father of Rob Roy's mother.

27.  What was the early name of the Glen Gyle MacGregors.

'Doughal Ciar', from the premature gray hair of its founder.

28.  Where did the MacGregors originate?

According to W.F. Skene, in "Celtic Scotland", They originated in ecclesiastic communities founded by St. Fillan in Glen Dochart near the great fortress, Dundurn, the scene of much of King Gregor's activities.  

29.  What two Alban Picts are represented on the British Union Jack?

King Onnust and Maewyn Succat.
Onnust had a dream before an epic battle where he saw the white saltire cross of St. Andrew on a background of sky blue.  After the battle, It was pronounced the flag of Alban, and still remains as the national flag of Scotland.

Maewyn Succat ("warlike" in Pict) was born near Kilmarnock, and was kidnapped while still a child and taken to Ireland, where he eventually managed to escape to the continent and joined the priesthood.  He was re-christened as Patricius (Padrig in Pict) by the Church, and became a Bishop.  He was sent to Ireland to convert the inhabitants there, and after 30 years,  succeeded.  His representation is a red saltire cross on a white background, (the cross of St. Patrick).

30.  What four flags represent a dream of the great Pict King, Onnust?

The British Union Jack, the National flag of Scotland, the flag of Nova Scotia and the first half of the flag of Newfoundland.


Union Jack flag of the United Kingdom National flag of Scotland Flag of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador

 31.  What jurisdictions (besides the British) have the cross of St. Patrick as their flag?

The American states of Alabama and Florida.

The State flag of AlabamaThe State flag of Florida.






32.  What is the only jurisdiction in the British Empire that was declared loyal to the Court in Edinburgh (not the English court) by its very charter.  A hint:  This was done through trickery by a Scottish patriot.

Nova ScotiaExplanation:   The charter was drawn up  by King James VI of Scotland (King James I of England).  Like most learned men of Scotland, he was fluent in Latin, and drew up the charter entirely in that language, thereby impressing his English subjects, but they were entirely ignorant of the contents, until many years later.  It was never modified.

33.  Which house of the MacGregors was known as "the Children of the mist", and why?

The house of Glenstrae.  After the Campbells installed a young MacGregor, the sub-chief of the Doughal Ciar as Grand Chief, intra-Clan warfare broke out.  The legitimate Clan Chiefs and their families of the Glen Strae MacGregors were hunted down and murdered by the Earl of Argyle's forces.  They took to the hills and were seldom seen in the daylight by strangers, hence the name "children of the mist".  The last Glenstrae Chief (Grand Chief of the Clan Gregor) died during Rob Roy's lifetime.

34.  What parts of three modern countries were included in the Alban Empire.

Scotland, Northumbria in England, Ulster in Ireland (+ the Isle of Man).

35.  What happened to the term "Empire" after the Pict/Scottish union of the two crowns?

The term "Empire" remained officially in the title of Alban, then Scotland, until 1603, when King James VI left for London.  He was the first monarch to assume the title of  "King of Great Britain".

36.  Who was the first Christian martyr in Britain?  What were the circumstances of his martyrdom?A representation of St. Alban

Alban, who was a Pict soldier and a solid citizen. He was converted to Christianity by a persecuted priest whom he sheltered from the Pagan Roman authorities.  He then changed clothes with the priest, allowing him to escape.  Caught, he was ordered to renounce his new faith.  He refused and became the first Christian martyr in Britain.  The second was the executioner who was to kill him, who heard his testimony, converted on the spot, and refused to kill Alban.  The third was the priest, who, when he learned that Alban had been arrested in his place, hurried to the court in the hope of saving Alban by turning himself in. The place of their deaths is near the site of Saint Alban's Cathedral. 
He died by being tortured and beheaded in AD305 at Holmhurst Hill, England.

Editor's note:  "Alpin" was pronounced Alban by all Celts.

37.  What did King James VI do to anyone outside Scotland who criticized or ridiculed Scotland?

He arrested them and sent them to Scotland to be charged with treason, where they were each hanged.  If they had been tried in England, the case would have been thrown out of court.  He also sent an assassin to Poland to kill a Polish journalist  who wrote that Edinburgh was too cold and draughty to be a proper national capital.

38.  Who was, and remains, Canada's most decorated soldier?

Lt Col. John (Jock) MacGregor - V. C., M.C. and Bar, D.C.M., E.D. of Powell River, B.C. (1889-1952)

Born south of Nairn, not far from Inverness, Scotland.  In 1909, with no inheritance rights, he set out for Canada.  In March of 1915, while trapping in the interior of B.C., he heard that Canada was at war.  Snow shoeing for days, he caught a boxcar into Prince Rupert where he was rejected.  He groomed himself and went to Vancouver where he was accepted.    He was the first Canadian over Vimy Ridge, where, as a Sergeant, he earned the Distinguished  Conduct Medal.  As a Lieutenant at Hill 70, he earned a Military Cross.  He added a bar to his Military Cross at Quievrain.  As a Captain at Cambrai, he earned the Victoria Cross.

At the outbreak of the Second World War, Canada called on him again, promoted him to Lt. Colonel. He commanded the 2nd Canadian Scottish Regiment, where he trained men for battle in Europe.  Of his Canadian citizenship papers, he said "They are the greatest gift my country has given me."

39.  Who was Bonnie Prince Charlie's personal piper?

John MacGregor, he was wounded at Culloden, but survived.

40.  Why is there no Clan Gregor memorial on the Culloden battlefield?

On the day of the battle, the MacGregors and MacKinnons (under the Chief of the GlenGyle MacGregors) were in Sutherland confronting the MacKays and MacKenzies to keep them from joining the main Hanoverian army  The MacGregors who did fight at Culloden were in the mixed clans contingents and were buried as such.

41.  What foreign troops did the British Government bring in to police the MacGregors after Culloden, similar to what the Romans did 1660 years earlier?

Troops from the low countries, (Belgium and Holland), exactly the same as did the Romans in 84 AD.

42.  What fort did the British army build to police the MacGregors in the 1700s?


43.   How many times did the MacGregors destroy Inversnaid?

Three times, during the 1715, 1719 and 1745 rebellions.

44.   What British officer was put in charge of rebuilding Inversnaid after the 45?

 James Wolfe (later General) .

45.  Did Clan Gregor ever raise a regiment to serve in the British army?

Yes, in the 1780s, the MacAlpine Fencibles who were stationed in Ireland.

46.  Did the majority of Highlanders serve under Bonnie Prince Charlie?

No, the majority of Scottish Highlanders actually fought on the Hanoverian side, although, after Culloden,  all of the Highlanders suffered pillage, rapine and eventually the clearances..

47.  Who was Bonnie Prince Charlie's personal adjutant?

Lt. Colonel James Mohr MacGregor, son of Rob Roy.

48.  Who was Simon Bolivar's right hand man, and a hero of the Venezuelan revolt against Spain?

General Sir Gregor MacGregor, grandson of Gregor Glun Dhubh, the nephew of Rob Roy.

49.  What was the marching song of the MacGregors that struck such terror into all those who heard it, and what form does it have today?

It was "How the mighty have fallen" and is now a street song for many Scottish children that goes by the name "In and out of the bluebells".

50.  Which Scottish Clan has the highest number of Victoria Cross winners?

The MacGregors, with eleven.  To see their stories click here.

51.  Where on earth is Scotland still referred to as Alba?

In the three remaining jurisdictions that preserve the Celtic language, (1) Brittany, where Scotland is called Alba.  (2) In Wales, where Scotland is called Alban (as the Picts called it) (3) In Ireland where Scotland is called Albain.

52.  Where on earth is Scotland still referred to as Caledonia?

In the Vatican, were the official language is Latin.

53.  Who is universally recognized as the father of the British Army Medical corps?

Sir James MacGrigor, who served during the Napoleonic wars.  Napoleon once gave him an outstanding compliment when he said "The British forces are under sanitary discipline while the French army is a perambulating brothel."

54.  Who was the most pugnacious Officer ever to have served in the British Army?

Sir Colin Campbell (MacLiver), Lord Clyde.    Due to an administrative error, he was entered into the army at the age of 16 as a Campbell.  The repeal of the MacGregor proscriptions had not yet permeated into army bureaucracy, although he was duly christened as Colin MacLiver, (a well-known MacGregor alias originally from Glen Lyon).

His army career ranged from the crossing of the Bidaossa river in the Basque country, to suppressing the West Indian revolt, to the Crimea, to enforcing the debauchery of the Chinese in the opium wars, to the relief of Lucknow in India.

This man was recognized as having no fear, and was held in awe by all who knew him.  He was a "battling ram" that the army sent to any crisis that was unmanageable by any other.  A true MacGregor! 

55.   Who invented the reflection telescope, which permitted the human mind to explore the remotest depths of outer space?

James Gregory of Aberdeen.

56.  What was King Gregor's christened name in Pict?

Grig MacDungal (which meant Grig, son of the dark stranger).

57.  Who was primarily responsible for the vindication of the Clan Gregor?

Sir Walter E. Scott.

58.  Who is the most outstanding MacGregor who ever left Scotland?

Rev Dr. James Drummond MacGregor, from Loch Earn.  He changed his surname back to MacGregor while enrolled in the Presbyterian theology school in Edinburgh.  He taught himself Gaelic, and preached to all the Gaelic speaking highlanders he could find in Canada's maritime provinces.  The "Godfather" of all Protestants of northern Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and south-eastern New Brunswick, he was the only Protestant clergyman in that area for decades, and is universally recognized as the most outstanding MacGregor to have left Scotland. 

59.  Who is the only person who ever had a Scottish Tartan named after him?

Rob Roy MacGregor.

60. What was the origin of this particular tartan?

It was the ancient tartan of the MacGregors, and was eventually called the Rob Roy tartan because his band of GlenGyle MacGregors popularized it.

61.  What people were fist reported in history as wearing the highland Tartans, which today are synonymous with Scottish culture?  

In 80 AD, Tacitus reported the Caledonians (later called "Picts") wore "primitive" tartan kilts.  That factually recorded description observed long before Scots arrived in Argyll, effectively proves the Picts originated the tartan garb.

62.  Where did the "flaming", red hair so predominant in Scottish Highlanders (e.g. Rob Roy), originate?

From the early inhabitants of "Caledonia", as reported by Greek merchant seamen, who recorded the first written descriptions of those people.  They were referred to as "Albiones" (pale skinned) with blonde or red hair.

63.  Who was Rob Roy's father, Lt. Col. Donald Glas MacGregor, named after?

His maternal uncle, Donald Glas MacDonald.  Glas was a common nickname for many early Highlanders.  It meant 'naturally pale skin' in P-Celtic, the language of the Picts.

64.  Under what circumstances did Rob Roy's father die a premature death?

He died from the results of a prolonged torture in the Tolbooth prison in Edinburgh, under direct orders from a vengeful (Campbell) Earl of Stair, upon the ascension of William of Orange to the throne of  Britain.  Stair was bitter at Donald for having played such a large part in the battle of Killiecrankie, where the Campbell forces were obliterated.

65.  What is the oldest provincial flag still flying in any jurisdiction in Canada?

The Flag of Nova Scotia (designed by King James VI in 1603).

66.  What is the origin of the term "rigmarole", (which today means foolish talk or foolish activity)?

From the "Ragman's Roll", which was a list of Scottish landowners prepared on the orders of England's Edward I (long shanks), so they could be identified and forced to pay him a remittance.

67.  What is the origin of the term "decimate", which today means to slaughter?

In the Roman army, when troops did not perform to the satisfaction of their officers, often, the subject soldiers would be lined up, and every tenth man was beaten to death by his comrades on orders from above.  This practice was particularly common in Britain when the Picts, through guerrilla warfare,  were successful in driving the Romans from their territory north of Hadrian's Wall, and eventually reduced London to a smoking ruin.

68.   Who was the last monarch of the Picto/Gaelic bloodline?

MacBeth of the immortal (but not historically accurate) Shakespearian play of that name.

69.  What was the ethnic origins of the new line of Scottish Kings after MacBeth?


 70.  Was King Grig (Gregor) any relation to the MacAlpin family?

No, his father was Dungal of Fortrenn, so his full name was Grig MacDungal.

71.  How do we know the above is true?

Five of six historical chronicles of the day stated the above.  The only dissenting chronicle was "The Scottish Chronicles", which was politically tainted.

72.   How did Grig attain the Alban throne?

In the time honoured fashion of most monarchs of that day, by slaying the previous monarch, Hugh MacKenneth, a son of Kenneth MacAlpin, (a Scot/Pict whose first and last name were both Pict).

73.  Were the Alban Picts, Celts, or were they descendents of the Orcadians?

They were actually a mixture of both.  We know this because most of the names of Pict Kings, as related in the Pict Chronicles were pure Celtic; e.g. Alpin, Bili, Brude, Conall (equivalent to the Breton "Conall"), Kinnid (Kenneth), Dungall, Finghin, Garnard, Girom, Drust,  Talorc, Wroid (pronounced Froid).  Personal names of common people were often more Orcadian (pre-Celtic) derived; e.g. Canatulachama, Bliesblituth, Erp, Guididgaedbrecach and Usconbuts.

74.  Where did the Picts of Alba come from?

They came in three waves, the first (Stone age hunter gatherers) from Spain, the second (Copper using Beaker peoples) and third (Iron using Brythonic Celts) from northern Europe. 

The Brythonic Celt world, 500BC.

75.  Were the Scots a Celtic race?

Yes, although they were the result of  earlier Celts mixing with Carthaginians of northern Spain, then with the earlier inhabitants of southern Ireland, thereby creating a new culture, called Gaelic.

76.  Were the Celts a homogenous racial group?

No, all Roman historians described the Celts as a group united merely by culture, not race.

77.  Which origin was Clan Gregor derived from, Pict or Scot?

Pict, according to Forbes MacGregor who wrote the authoritative book "Clan Gregor", which was published by the Clan Gregor Society in 1977.   His exact words were "The extraordinary discovery is, that although Grig (Gregor) was by all authentic accounts a Pict, and the clan, (but not the old line of chiefs) are of Pictish origin".

78.  What was the racial division between Picts and Scots upon the union of the two crowns under Alpin?

90% Pict and 10% Scot.

79.  What extreme measure was taken by the Pict monk, Finghin, to reestablish Pict numerical superiority in Glen Dochart?

He made a successful plea to Pope Benedict in Rome to allow Pict monks to marry and begat children.

80.   What monarch gave the Scottic church equal status to the Pict church under Alban law?

King Grig (Gregor).

81.   What are the connections between the Berbers of North Africa and the Celts?

Tests have proven that Berbers and the Celts of Ireland, Wales and Scotland have very similar dna, indicating they are from the same racial stock.  The Berber language contains many Celtic words.

82.   Which two clans were best known for giving shelter to MacGregors when they were proscribed?

The Grants and the MacAulays (who were both related to the MacGregors).

83.   How did the term "Scot" originate?

In the 2nd century AD, marauders based in Ireland, began to ravage the western coast of Roman Pretania (Britain).  The Romans called them "Scotti", which was a Latin derisive slang meaning - sea raiders.

84.  What were the Picts who first colonized northern Ireland, called by the earlier inhabitants?  What did it mean literally?

The "Cruithne" in Gaelic (Pryden in Brythonic), who formed a confederation called the "Uliad".  The term, Cruithne, is derived from Pict legend which claims Cruithne was the creator. 

Cruithne meant "old Irish" in Gaelic;  cru(i)then-túath),

85.   What were the Picts who later colonized north-east Ireland, called by the Gaels?

The S'goth (boat people in Gaelic).

86.   How were the Picts able to colonize northern Ireland when Gael-type Celts were already there?

The Gaels belonged to an earlier Celt culture called "Hallstatters", (from a site in Austria where one of their villages was unearthed), and swept down into Spain from western France.  The Picts were part of a later, more advanced type of Celt culture called, "La Tene", with better tools and weapons  (from a site in Switzerland where one of their villages was unearthed). 

87.   Did the Hallstatter and La Tene Celts speak the same language?

Originally yes but, over time,  they eventually differed, as the Hallstatters spoke Q-Celtic where the LaTene Celts spoke P-Celtic.

88.  What is the main difference between Q-Celtic and P-Celtic?

In Q-Celtic, many words are pronounced with a "Q" or "K" sounding consonant, whereas in P-Celtic those words are usually pronounced with a "P" or a "B";   e.g. "head" is pronounced as Kaen (and written as Caen) in Q-Celtic, whereas in  P-Celtic, head is pronounced as Benn  (and is written as Penn).  In general, Q-Celtic had many words that came from the throat (i.e. Q, K, G and CH) where those words had been modified in P-Celtic to incorporate sounds that came from the lips (i.e. P, D, N and T). 

89.  Is there any similarity between Celtic and Latin?

Yes, for example, in both languages, there is no soft "C".  "C" is pronounced as a "K", also, a "J" is pronounced as a "Y" in both languages.  Note: Caesar was actually pronounced as Kaiser, and John was pronounced as 'Yon' in both languages.  Actually old Celtic was more similar to Latin than are the five surviving Romance languages.  Below is a table illustrating the similarities between Latin and seven Celtic languages.


First ten numerals in Latin and six Celtic languages

  Latin Proto-Celtic
Breton Cornish Welsh Old Irish New Irish Scottish
1 primus cintus unan onan cynt ceta cead aon
2 secundus allos daou dew ail aile eile dhà
3 tertius tritios tri tri trydydd treide treas tri
4 quartus petuarios pevar peswar pedwerydd cethramad ceithir ceithir
5 quintus pinpoetos pemp pymp pumed coiced coig còig
6 sextus suexos c'hwec'h hwegh chweched seissed sianar
7 septimus sextametos seizh seyth seithfed sechtmad seachd seachd
8 octavus oxtumetos eizh eth wythfed ochtmad ochd ochd
9 nonus nametos nav naw nawfed nomad naodh naodh
10 decimus decametos dek deg degfed dechmad deich deich

90.  What drove the Romans to hate the Celts so much?

In 390 BC, Gaulish Celts, captured Rome, and taxed it until they were satisfied they had been fully compensated for a perceived treachery by the Romans.  The Romans never forgot the humiliation.

91.   Did Celts ever march through a captured Rome again?

Yes, in 1944 AD, when victorious British and other Commonwealth Highland regiments marched through Rome with bagpipes blaring.  (Although, this time, they were welcomed as liberators).

92.  When did the Celts arrive in Britain?

About 500 BC.

93.  What was the origin of the bitter enmity between Highlanders and Lowlanders in Scotland?

Apart from differing language and culture, the Highlanders' stubborn refusal to accept Norman feudalism, as was forced on the Lowlanders by David II, was the main reason for the bitterness.

94.  How did Britain gets its name?

The Romans called this colony "Pretania", after the name the Celtic Britons called the Picts, "Prydyn", which sounds like Britain in English.  The confederation of England and Scotland was named Great Britain by a Celtic Scot, King James VI.

95.  What was Rob Roy's wife's name, and what was her family connection to that of Rob Roy?

Her maiden name was "Helen Mary MacGregor" of Comar, (not the Helen Campbell of Sir Walter Scott's novel).  She was the daughter of Gregor Og MacGregor, who lived across the glen from Donald Glas MacGregor and his family.  Gregor and Donald had a common paternal grandfather, Gregor Dhu, born in  1545.

96.  When and why was the name of Clan Alpin changed to Clan Gregor?

In 1432 AD, MacCailein Mor (alias Campbell), laid claim to the three Glens, Orchy, Lochy and Strae, in Argyle, which was contrary to a traditional Celtic rule that all lands belonged to the Clan, not to any single family.  Clan Alpin, which inhabited those three Glens,  chose Gregor, the nephew of Iain of Orchy as the new Chief, and to emphasize their repudiation of the Campbell, changed the name of their clan to Clan Gregor.

97.  How did the Campbell family gain control of the lands of Lorne?

In 1464, MacCailein Mor, (the first Campbell)  plotted the assassination of the Lord of Lorne, then tore Lorne's only child, a girl of four, from her mother's arms, and kept her as a prisoner in his castle until she was fifteen.  He then forcibly married her to his eldest son.

98.  How did the Campbells gain control of Cowal, the land of the Lamonts?

In 1646, a Campbell army invaded their neighbours, the Lamonts taking their Castles, Toward and Ascog.  Sir James Lamont surrendered after accepting fair terms for his people.  However the Campbells then slaughtered over two hundred of Lamont's men, women and children.  One tree was said to have held thirty five bodies from its branches, and another thirty six men were buried alive.  The two Lamont castles were obliterated.  This tragedy became known as the Dunoon Massacre. 

99.  How did the Campbells gain possession of traditional MacGregor lands?

They first used murder and rape.  Then, they refined their technique to gaining influence in the Royal court,  false promises, instigation to violence, false witness, control of courts of justice, and Letters of Fire and Sword.  Then as hereditary High Sheriffs of Scotland, the Campbells managed to enact a law to dispossess the MacGregors of owning any land, and all land seized from them was to be turned over to the Campbells.

100.  How was feudalism introduced into Scotland?

In 1124 AD, King David I, who had spent twenty years at the English court, was proclaimed King of Scotland.  He brought 1,000 land-seeking Norman nobles to Scotland with him.  He distributed estates to these Normans by arbitrarily dispossessing native landowners. 

101.  Did the Picts speak P-Celtic? 

Yes, but it was a unique dialect due to the result of their isolation, and of the influence of the earlier Orcadian culture they assimilated.

102.  Was the flaming red hair of the northern Picts unique?

No, many of the Picts of England and Ireland also had red hair.

103.  When was the fiery cross last used in the defence of any clan property? 

[image of a burning cross]Clan Grant, a Clan Gregor cadet (offshoot), claims to have been the last clan to have used it - in defence of its principle castle, Urquhart, which overlooks Loch Ness, and was originally a great Pict fortress.



104.  How do we know for certain that Grig MacDungal killed Hugh MacKenneth, the youngest son of Kenneth MacAlpin?

The Pictish Chronicles stated quite boldly (in Latin)   " Ed Mac Kinet uno anno.  Interfectus in bello in Strathalin a Girg filio Dungal".   (The English translation= Hugh MacKenneth ruled for one year.  Slain in war in Strathearn by Gregor son of Dunegal). Note: The names were in Pict.

105.  Has there ever been an objective scientific study of the inhabitants of the Perthshire Highlands (where the MacGregors arose) to determine if they were descended from the "Caledonians"?

Yes, Dr. Beddoe, the leading European ethnologist of the 19th century, conducted a very meticulous study of the people of this area, measuring skulls, noting height, eye and hair colour, and other personal characteristics.  He published his findings in his "Study of Races of Britain" and concluded these people were more homogenous than in any other part of Europe, and that they resembled the Caledonians described by Tacitus, in that there was a minority with large athletic frame with red hair but this was also a minority in Roman times.   He also stated these people had not changed their characteristics for over 18 centuries.

106.  By what legal means did Alpin claim ascendancy to the Pict throne?

His mother was a Pict princess.

107.  What was Alpin's full name?  Was he King of Dalriada?

Alpin Mac Eachaidh Anguibh (in Gaelic), Alpin MacHugh the Poisonous (in English).  He reigned over Dalriada from 834 to 837 AD.

108. How did Alpin gain the throne of both Picts and Scots?  How long did he reign?

The Picts under Onnust II had just suffered a horrendous defeat at the hands of the Norse Vikings, losing their King and most of their leaders and warriors.  Alpin committed the unpardonable sin of attacked them on the holiest Christian day, Easter, in 837 AD.  In the Autumn of that year, Alpin was defeated by a reconstituted Pict army, and was publicly beheaded in front of a large hostile army.   (Beheading was the most shameful of all Pict deaths.)

109.  How did Cinnid mac Ailpín (anglicized to Kenneth MacAlpin) gain the throne of both Picts and Scots?  Did he try to weaken the Pict control on power?

In the early 800s AD, the Vikings laid waste to much of Alban and severely weakened the Pict establishment.  The Picts had to unite with the Scots of Dalriada or perish.  Alpins eldest son, Kenneth, was offered the throne, and he accepted.  During his reign, he worked to unite both the Picts and Scots, and did nothing to weaken the Pict church's control on the clerical and educational establishment in Alban.

110.  Did Kenneth MacAlpin invite all the Pict nobles to a grand dinner and treacherously execute them as is claimed by some Scottish historians?

No, this is utter nonsense.  There is no factual record of any such treachery.  Neither is there any independent record of such an event.  The fact that the Picts were later strong enough to break into the MacAlpin line of succession and name Grig MacDungal as King, illustrates that they were not weakened in any way by Kenneth's rule.  Otherwise, the Vikings were still a terrible threat and all able bodied men were needed to fight them off.

111.  How many times were the MacGregors proscribed, and why?


The first time was in 1603 by James VI.  He proscribed the MacGregors, taking away their humanity, and reducing them to live as animals of the forest because they defeated and slaughtered a force twice their size of the Colquhouns, the Buchanans and a Militia from Dumbarton, who were bent of destroying them.

This proscription was the worst as several successive acts of the Scottish Parliament were enacted to make it  more severe.  It lasted until 1650, when Oliver Cromwell became Lord Protector of Britain, as he was against fanaticism in all its forms.  This lifting was upheld by Charles II, but he never returned any stolen MacGregor land or possessions, as was previously promised.

The second time was when William Of Orange defeated Charles II, and became King in 1693.  This proscription was implemented at the instigation of the Earl of Stair, the Campbell nobleman, who Cromwell allowed to run Scotland during his entire reign.  His reason? He had a score to settle with the MacGregors, who had benefited from the previous rules of Cromwell, and Charles II, at the expense of the Campbells.  This proscription was not as severe as the first, and was largely ignored by many of those in power, becoming moot in the waning years of its term.  This one was lifted in 1774, largely by the influence of Sir Walter E. Scott.

112.  What was a Royal Commission of Fire and Sword?

When the sovereign gave someone a legal written permission to attack an entity, take any of their possessions, burn their buildings and kill as many of them as they wished. 

113.  How many times were the MacGregors subjected to Royal Commissions of Fire and Sword, when, and by whom ?

114.  Four times:

In 1488; by the Campbells of Glen Orchy, Stewarts of Fothergill, and Campbells of Glen Falloch.  This was when the Stewarts, raided Glen Lyon and massacred the MacGregor septs; MacLivers and MacIvers.
In early 1563; by all nobles and Chiefs of all Clans in Scotland.
In  late 1563; a special commission for Sir John Campbell of Glen Orchy to murder and destroy the paramount Clan Gregor house of Glen Strae.
In 1602; by the Laird of Luss (an adversary of the Campbells of Argyle).  The Duke of Argyle gave Alasdair of Glenstrae his blessings to resist the Colquhouns.

115.  What type of people has research proven were the founding communities of the Clan Gregor?

All historical researchers agree the body of Clan Gregor (but not its Glen Orchy line of Chiefs), and closely associated clans, sprang from the ecclesiastic communities founded by St. Filian, seconded by Columban monks, and secured in succession by Finghin (traditionally the grandson of King Grig). 

116.  What was the Pict system of Sovereign succession.  Why was it first implemented?  Was it used in all cases of succession?

The succeeding Sovereign was often chosen from the sons of a sister of the previous King (matrilineal).
It was implemented to inhibit the previous custom of a prospective Sovereign killing the previous King to claim the Crown.  The matrilineal system was not always used.

117.  Was the Pict system of Sovereign succession ever implemented after the union of the Pict/Scot crown?

Yes, at least 4 times.

1/  On 02 March 1316, Robert Stewart was proclaimed King Robert II of the Scottish Empire. His legal claim was of the fact his mother was Marjorie Bruce, a daughter of King Robert I, the last of the Bruce family (in the Pict tradition).

2/  On 24 March 1603, James VI of Scotland was proclaimed King James I of Great Britain.  His legal claim was based on the fact his mother was a daughter of King Henry VIII, and was a sister of Queen Elizabeth I, the previous monarch (in the Pict tradition).

3/  On 13 February 1689, William (of Orange) was declared King William III of Great Britain.  His legal claim was based on the fact his mother was the Princess Royal, daughter of Charles I, and sister of James VII, the previous monarch (in the Pict tradition).

4/  Malcom 

118.  How did Ciricius (in Latin) become Girig in Celtic.

In Latin naming practices, "ius" or "us" were often added to common names to embellish them, so outside the Roman sphere of influence, Ciricius would revert to Ciric.  In Latin (and Celtic), a "C" followed by an "i" was pronounced as a "K", so Ciric was pronounced as Kirik in Latin, and Girig in Celtic, as Celts tended to pronounce a "k' harsher.  In later Celtic societies, Christian monks were the people who maintained literacy.  Using the Latin alphabet, Celtic words were spelled phonetically.

119.  Who was the first declared King of the Picts and Scots?

Onnust I, he ruled from 729 to 761 AD.  This was verified by the Ulster Annals.

120.  Who was the Pict King, when they burned and sacked Roman London?

Drust, son of Erp.

121.  How many Kings did the Picts list in their "Pict Chronicles"?


122.  Why is it that any history of the Picts is defamatory?

Because their history was largely related by their enemies.  Even the original "Pict Chronicle" "disappeared", and was translated into Gaelic, so all of the original context is missing. 

123.  Was there ever any peaceful contact between Alban and Rome?

Yes, Dio Cassius recorded in the 3rd century AD, a Caledonian envoy, Argentocoxus,  and his wife living in Rome.

124. Who baptized Columba, the Irish missionary who brought Christianity to Alban?

He was baptized in Ireland at Tulach-Dubhglaise, now Temple-Douglas, by a Pict priest named Cruithnechan (in Gaelic), (Prydennehhton in Pict), who afterwards became his tutor and foster-father.

125.  What is the Celtic family tree, and what is its significance to Pict.

The family tree of the Insular Celtic languages is as follows:

Goidelic languages:     (1)  Primitive Irish, (ancestral to)
                                                (a) Old Irish, (ancestral to)
                                                          (i) Middle Irish, (ancestral to)
                                                               (a)  Modern Irish,
                                                               (b)  Scottish Gaelic,
                                                               (c)  Manx (extinct),
                                                               (d)  Galwegian (extinct).

        Brythonic languages:   (1) Pictish (extinct)
                                                    (2) British, (ancestral to)
                                                          (a) Cumbric (extinct)
                                                          (b) Old Welsh, (ancestral to)
                                                                   (1) Middle Welsh, (ancestral to)
                                                                               (a) Welsh.

                                                    (3) Southwestern Brythonic (ancestral to)
(a) Breton,
(b) Cornish.

126.  Who actually defeated the Pict Army?  

The Vikings.  The Scots were merely invited to pick up the pieces.

127.  Are there any places in Scotland left with their original Pict names?

Yes, those prefixed with "Aber-", "Lhan-", or "Pit-" indicate regions inhabited by Picts in the past (for example: Aberdeen, Lhanbryde, Pitmedden, Pittodrie, etc).   Places such as Moray, Wemys, Urquhart The city of Perth has a non-Gaelic name also.  "Pert" meant hedge in Pict (It was Gaelicized to Perth).

128.  Since the Picts were originally a loose confederation of kingdoms, what caused them to form a strong national government?

The threat from the Romans to the south.

129.  When was the first reference to "Picts" ever recorded.

The Greek word Πικτοί (Latin "Picti") first appears in a panegyric written by Eumenius in AD 297.

130.  We know the Q-Celtic speaking Gaels called the Picts "Cruithne", but what did the P-Celtic Welsh speaking Britons in Strathclyde (around Glasgow) call them?

The Welsh and Britons of Strathclyde knew them, in the P-Celtic form of "Cruithne", as Prydyn.

131.  What did the Germanic Angles of Lothian (around Edinburgh) call them?


132.  Who was the greatest King of the Picts?  What was the meaning of his name in other languages?

In P-Celtic: Onnust, in old Q-Celtic: Óengus, in English: Angus.  In Latin: Augustus.  The meaning is "trustworthy".

133.  Who actually was Grig?  Was he related to the MacAlpin family in any way?

No.   Benjamin Hudson, an objective historian, has written that Giric, rather than being a member of the Cináed mac Ailpín dynasty, was a member of the northern Pict Cenel Loairn dynasty of Moray.

134.  Then, why have so many Scottish records claimed that Grig was from the MacAlpin family?

Because, that would suggest Kenneth MacAlpin did not eradicate the Pict aristocracy as was claimed by a Scottish Chronicle fairy tale.

135.  What alphabet(s) did the Picts use?

They used the alphabets of literate peoples who visited them.  First the Greeks, then Latin, then the Ogham alphabet which was invented in Ireland around the 4th century AD.   When Albann became converted to Christianity, Latin became the language of the Church and the aristocracy.   (The Church was responsible for schooling all boys.) 

136.  Did Pict soldiers ever fight in England as a Pict unit after the 11th century?

Yes, as late as the 12 twelfth century the English chronicler Richard of Hexham recorded that Picts were present at the Battle of the Standard, fought in Yorkshire in 1138AD.

137.  Was there any difference between the Caledonians and the Picts?

The Caledonians were one powerful Kingdom in the central area of ancient Scotland (Alban) that now comprises the counties of Inverness shire, Nairnshire, Moray, Banffshire, Aberdeenshire, Kincardinshire, Forfarshire and Perthshire,   They were so powerful, the Romans called the entire area Caledonia. However, they were only one of many Pict tribes.   The Picts comprised all the various peoples of Alban.

138.  Is there any objective proof that The Picts ever ruled Ireland also?

Yes, according to the Irish 'Book of Lecain', Gede, King of the Picts, ruled in Ireland as well as in Caledonia.

138.  Is there any proof that the Picts came from Scandinavia?

Yes,  many Pict symbol stones (such as the Lunnasting Stone) found throughout Scotland, are written in an old Norse style called OghamIn later Scandinavia, memorial inscriptions like those would have been carved in runes not ogham.  Therefore, the ancestors of the people who inscribed these stones must have came from Norway in an epoch before the advent of the later type of writing (or the writers were influenced somehow by those more ancient Scandinavians).

139.   What does the Lunnasting stone say in Pict?

The inscription reads   "ettocuhetts ahehhttann hccvvevv nehhtonn" It contains the personal name -  Nehhtonn (Nechtan in Gaelic).

140.  What actually was the "Pictish Chronicle" and who wrote it?  What languages were used?

The Pictish Chronicle was a historical document comprising three parts:

Part 1.  An account of the origins of the Picts.  It was basically taken from part of the Entomologies of Seville, Spain.  It is fantasy and pure conjecture for the most part.  

Part 2.  A list of Pictish kings from the earliest times to the reign of Kenneth MacAlpin.  The original manuscript could have been written by a Pict monk but it disappeared, and only undocumented translated (into Gaelic) copies are available today.

Part 3. A list of kings of the combined kingdom of Picts and Scots until the reign of Kenneth II with some notes about religious events during each reign.

Note:  All three parts were written in Latin.  The names of the kings were mostly in Gaelic.  The translations that were made in several renditions of these Chronicles were different from each other, indicating the Scottish translators did not do a very good job.

141.  Where is the original Pictish Chronicle? 

No one knows, it was lost (probably destroyed).

142.  When were the 3 original Pictish Chronicle parts written?

Part 1:  (560-636 AD) in Seville, Spain by Isidore.

Part 2: During the reign of Kenneth MacAlpin (843-859 AD).

Part 3: During the reign of Kenneth II (971-995AD).

143.  When was the oldest remaining copy written?

During the 14th century.

144.  Was everything in the 1st part of the Pictish Chronicle true?

No, e.g. "Some of the Scythian people were born with white hair because of the continuous snowfall, and they could see better in the dark than in the daytime."

145.  Was everything in the 2nd part true?

No. Some early statements are outlandish e.g. Gilgidi ruled 150 years, Denbecan ruled 100 years.

146.  Was everything in the 3rd part true?

No. e.g.  "Kenneth slaughtered the Pict ruling class".  All learned historians consider this statement to be rubbish.

147.  Who actually wrote the 3rd part of the Pictish Chronicle?  How is this certain?

Do doubt some Scottish religious person (monk).   The Chronicle is very pro-Scottish, and there is a great deal of religious data that has nothing to do with the list of kings; e.g. Dates of visits to Rome, resignations and the comings and goings of many religious officials.  There are several false and  inflammatory pro-Scottish & anti-Pict statements that indicate a hatred toward the Pict establishment.

148.  What was the intent of the Scottish church in publishing of the Pictish Chronicle?

To defame the Pict establishment, and to eulogize the Scots.

149.  How do we know for certain that Onnus conquered Dal Riata and killed the leaders there?

Because the Annals of Ulster, written by Irish monks, with entries by each year, wrote in 736 AD:
"Aengus son of Fergus, king of the Picts, laid waste to the territory of Dál Riata and seized Dún At and burned Creic and bound in chains two sons of Selbach, i.e. Donngal and Feradach."

150.  How did Kenneth II (971-995AD) die?

In 995 AD, he was lured to a house in Fettercairn by Finella (a daughter of Kindar, a mormaer of Angus) and there killed, in revenge for the death of her son who had been executed on Kenneth's orders.

151.  How did the modern term "Mayor" originate?

The Pict monarchs created loyal governorships who reported directly to them.  They were named "Mormaers".  When the crown was united, the Scots named their own followers to these positions.  To ensure their loyalty, the King usually appointed them from his own family.   Their positions became hereditary.

152.  What areas were designated as Mormaerdoms?

Moray, Fife, Strathearn, Angus, Atholl, Buchan, Caithness, Orkney, Carrick, Lothian/Dunbar, Lennox, Mar, Menteith and Ross.  

153.  How did James 1st die?

He was stabbed to death by several of his own Mormaers.

154.  Whatever happened to the Mormaers of Scotland?

They were renamed "Earls" (a Germanic title) in the 1400s.  Eventually, they were all executed for treason.  The last, the Earl of Albany, was executed in 1425 AD.

155.  Who were the Druids, and what was their legacy?

They were the top level of Celtic society, which was structured into four class layers: intelligentsia, warriors, traders and food producers.  Under Roman rule, many became great philosophers and writers, often confused as Romans.

156.  What was the actual Pict succession system, and how is this proven?

The Picts chose their Kings by majority votes from a group of seven sub Kings.  This was the typical succession system employed in all Celt societies.  

157.  Where did the claim of matrilineal Pict succession come from?

Bede, the foremost historian of Northumbria (died 735AD), claimed that Pict kings and chieftains took Irish wives on condition that the Kingship passed through the female line.  All later historians claimed this was merely Irish propaganda related to Irish claims over Pict Kingship.

158.  Was there ever a flower named after Alba?

Yes, the Evening Lychnis, scientific name = "Lychnis Alba".  (photo attached).

159.  Has there ever been a pure white blue-eyed Highland cow?

Check out this photo of my "Snowflake", born June 6th, 2006.  It is not a fake.  For more photos of Snowflake, email me at:


160.    The Lunnasting stone has never been deciphered.   Has the author actually deciphered the Lunnasting stone?  How would it read in modern Welsh?

The Lunnasting stone is a stone bearing an Ogham inscription, found in Lunnasting, Shetland.  It was donated to the National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland in 1876.  The inscription reads:


ettocuhetts ahehhttann hccvvevv nehhtonn


- containing the personal name Nehhtonn, but otherwise without an acceptable interpretation to date.

The language:  Pictish?  It has been assumed by scholars that the language was in Pictish.  However,  records have proven that the peculiar P-Celtic of the Britons of Strathclyde and Goddodin had infiltrated into the remotest recesses of Albann, including the Orkney and Shetland islands by 300 AD.  After that time, the common language of Albann was a peculiar northern Briton P-Celtic tinted with residual Pict/Orcadian embellishments.  Nevertheless, in 1582, the humanist scholar (and native Gaelic-speaker) George Buchanan, expressed the view that Pictish was similar to languages like Welsh, Gaulish and Gaelic.   There is no question that the P-Celtic language that the expanding P-Celtic Britons brought to Albann about 400 BC, was a derivative of Gaulish.

Buchanon was a Gael and was under political pressure to conform with popular sentiment that Gaelic played a significant part in the development of the Pict language.  The truth is otherwise.  The linkage between P-Celtic and Q-Celtic is undeniable but it went back many centuries to the time when the Celts were still in their ancient homelands of central Europe.

 The language on this stone can correctly be described as an early (or prototype) "Welsh" as the transplantation of the Goddodin people to Wales in the 2nd century AD to Wales fused the Welsh language with the language of those north Britons.  Albann society embraced the Latin alphabet upon their conversion to Christianity during Brude's reign after  565AD.

Nehhtonn Morbet, the king who built 1,000 stone churches, began his reign in 708 AD.  By this time, the inhabitants of the Shetland had been speaking their unique dialect of P-Celtic for over 400 years.  Therefore the language on the Lunnasting stone would be a form of P-Celtic, with Pict embellishments (such as a fixation with doubling up of certain consonants, i.e. hh, nn, ll, tt, rr, uu, and of the overuse of "u").

The structure:   First, one has to understand what one is looking at.  This message contains four compound words assembled by an educated person.  This complex word structure was put together by no ordinary tradesman.  It was no doubt the work of a highly educated religious figure or an administrator i.e. mayor, governor).  It would have been meant to be displayed prominently in a Church or other public place to either influence local sentiments or to reflect a popular sentiment, or to be displayed for posterity.

In the remote region of Shetland, there would be no fancy verbal embellishments, merely simple compound words understood by all.  It is known that all Celtic and Latin languages (as is often the case in other languages as well) often added two or more simple words to constitute a larger word in formal inscriptions.

Here is my methodology:

One must check the closest remaining P. Celtic languages:  Modern Welsh gives us the best matches (old Welsh would be better).

The first word "ettocuhetts" is relatively easy.   There is no eto in Breton, but in Welsh, "eto" means Again, yet or still.

The "u"  sound In old Welsh was replaced with a "y" in modern Welsh.  The doubling up of the middle "t" was the result of Pict influence.

In modern Welsh, "cyhoeddi", pronounced as cuhedd (exactly the same as would the Pict "cuhett"), means  "proclaim".  (In Celtic words, a "T" ainvariably sounds like a "D").  The final "S' is probably a grammatical insertion to set the verb as the first person plural : e.g. "Let us".

This stone is no doubt a favourable proclamation in regard to Nehhton, so it stands to reason a simple translation of the first word to "Again, Let us proclaim" would fit very nicely into what is expected of it.

The second word: "ahehhttann":

In modern Welsh, "heddychol" means peaceful.  In modern Welsh, "an" means "before".  Together, the compound phonetical  word "ahedan" likely meant "peaceful as before".

The third word "hccvvevv" is at first quite complicated.  However, one must remember there was no actual "V" in neither old Welsh nor Pict, although "UU" sounded like a "V".   When translated into Gaelic it came out as an "F".  Latin and Celtic calligraphers, routinely wrote a "U' as a "V".  (Often, two "U"s together were incorrectly deciphered as a "W".

So this word properly becomes "hccuueuu".  In the south of Wales, one "U"  by itself is still spoken as an "I", and was no doubt spoken as such by the Picts.  Two connected "U"s were pronounced as "VE"; eg. the Pict name, "Uurgus", became the Gaelic "Fergus".

In Celtic, and no doubt in Pict also, an "H" was never silent, so it constituted a pronounced part of the word.  Sadly, most Pict words are lost forever.  However, considering the second part of this word, we come to an interesting fit.

It is rather apparent the second half of the word ("uueuu"), would phonetically sound like "fefe" or "ferf".   In modern Welsh, "fferf" means solid.    So, it is likely the third word means "solidarity".

In English, the entire inscription probably meant"

Again, let us proclaim as before, (a) peaceful  solidarity  with Nehhtonn

Note:  One must bear in mind that Nehhtonn Morbet (the Great) was a controversial figure due to his unpopular meddling in sensitive religious affairs.  Although he modernized his country, he interfered in the religious aspects of his country, in no small part due to his foreign wife being a Roman Catholic zealot.  This caused civil strife throughout Albann, and he had to flee to Ireland for his own safety.

It is universally recognized that those people who live off the bounties of nature (farmers, fishermen, hunters) and who live in the hinterlands of society, are the ones who most fiercely cling to traditional values.  The semi-isolated inhabitants of the Orkney and Shetlands would have been fiercely loyal to the conservative ideologies of their religion, be it pagan, or in this case, Christianity.  The Church hierarchy in remote areas would have enjoyed a much greater influence and respect amongst this rural population as the church was the beacon of both religion and literacy. 

This proclamation could well have been Church propaganda designed to influence the local population.

                                       For an in depth explanation of Nehhtonn's life and times, click here.

In modern Welsh (which is the closest living language to the now extinct P-Celtic of post 300 AD Albann), It would read:

Eto cyhoeddi heddychol an fferf â Neifion

61.  Has there ever been a portrait of Rob Roy in his early manhood?

Yes, Check this painting.


162.  Is there a specimen of Rob Roy's handwriting in existence?

Yes, Here is his signature.

It reads, At Portnellan 24th         Yours as formerly
                        June 1711                Ro: Campbell

Rob signed his name as Campbell because "MacGregor" was proscribed in 1693 in a petty act of vengeance by the Earl of Argyll, William of Orange's dictator of Scotland.  Rob was 22 years of age.

163.  Whatever happened to Rob Roy's battle-sword (claymore)?

It was exhibited in the Library Hall of the Long Island Historical Society in 1898.  Its whereabouts is now unknown.

164.  Agricola's historian and son-in-law, Tacitus, gave the Caledonian War Chief at the battle of Mons Graupius, the name "Galgacus".  What was the likely name of that person?

He certainly did not have a Roman name.  It was likely a Pict name, "Galanan" (which in English means strong), and was probably embellished for a Roman audience by Tacitus. 

 165.  What country's Navy recently re-adopted the Cross of St Andrew (with colors reversed) as its own flag.

Russia.   Explanation: In January 1992, a Russian Army Officers' Assembly petitioned the Government to replace the revolutionary USSR Naval Flag with the old Czarist era "Andreyevsky" (Cross of St. Andrews) Russian Naval Flag.  President Putin later presented the old/new flag to the head of the Russian Navy.  Note the similarity to the flag of Nova Scotia.

 166.  Were the Celts and Latins from the same racial stock?

Yes.  Experts universally agree that the similarities between Latin and Gaulish were of such a nature in Julius Caesar's time that 60 generations previously (about 1500 BC), they were the same people.

eg.  "He has given to the mothers of Nîmes" was "DEDE MATREBO NAMAUSIKABO" in Gaulish Celtic.  In Latin, it was "DEDIT MATRIBUS NEMAUSICABUS".

167.  Why were the Celts so successful in becoming the dominant force in Europe?

Due to their superior horse-drawn chariots and metal weapons.

168.  Are there any cities in Italy with Celtic names?

Milan was originally named "Mediolanum" (Gaulish for mid-plain".

169.  Why were the Celts content to remain illiterate when they dominated Europe?

For several thousands of years (4,000 - 250 BC), they had been able to rely on their superior weapons without having to outwit their enemies.

170.  Why did Latin not become the language of Britain?

Although Latin quickly became the language of officialdom and literacy, it never became the language of the common people, largely due to the Celts being impervious to it. 

171.  Which of the ancient cultures; Greek, Roman or Celtic, contributed the word "iron" to the English language?

The Latin word for iron was "ferrum", the Greek word was "sidêron", the Celtic word was "isarno".  The German Goths borrowed the Celtic word, and converted it to "eisarn".  Then, the old English word became "ïsern", later shortened to "ïren", then "iron".. 

172.  Are there many more German words borrowed from the Celts.

Yes.  eg.  Gaulish "uper" = over, became "uber" (the way it sounded) in German.

173.  How was Brittany (Breton) settled with Brythonic Celts?

The most accepted theory is that British Celts fleeing from Cornwall to escape the Germanic invasions, landed in Brittany during the first millennium AD.

174.  Did P-Celtic ever completely overwhelm the previous Orcadian language that was spoken by the Picts in the northernmost parts of Albann?

Yes,  historians agree that P-Celtic (Brythonic) reached the Shetland Islands by the year 300AD.

175.  Are there any characteristics of the Orcadian language that researchers have identified?  If so, what were they, and why did they appear in the northern P-Celtic dialect?

Linguists have determined that the P-Celtic spoken by the Picts became "different" than in other parts of  Europe.  Some differences were the verb-subject-object as basic word order, mutation of initial consonants, conjugated prepositions and strange locutions to express status and activity.  Most researchers believe these differences were attributed to the lost previous languages of the Orcadians.  Failing to understand the new language completely, they simply continued with many features of their older language.

176.  In ancient Albann and Ireland, which came first, the Pict "Uu" or the Irish "Fi"?

Definitely the Pict "Uu".  Although they both were pronounced the same, the Orcadian penchant for using the "Uu" for an "Fi" sound in personal names was developed thousands of years before the Irish Gaels arrived in Ireland.  Many Irish names were borrowed from the "Fi" and "Fe" sounds of names which were spelled "Uu" in Pict; eg.  Findlay, Finella, Finnegan, Finghin, Flynn, Fergus, et al.

177.  Where else in Europe is a double "U" pronounced as an "F"?

In modern German where a "W" is pronounced as "V" or "F".

178.  How was the Picto-Scot Royal line usurped?

Clan Duff was the royal line of which Queen Gruoch was the senior representative.  After the death of her second husband, King MacBeth, who was also of the house of Duff, her son by her first husband succeeded as King Lulach.  However, he was murdered in 1058.

Malcolm Canmore won the crown, and as much of southern Scotland as he could manage with English military help.  Although he had a son by his first marriage within the established royal line, his sons by his second marriage to a Saxon, Princess Margaret, usurped the throne, again with English military help.

In this manner, the English gained a great influence over Scotland, and it took two bloody revolutions, under William Wallace, and then Robert Bruce to re-establish Scottish independence.

179.  Who wrote the immortal love ballad, Loch Lomond, and under what circumstances?

One of the most immoral and horrific acts of vengeance in the annals of English armed forces was committed under the butcher of Culloden at Carlisle a few miles from the Scottish border on England's west coast. 

When the Jacobites troops swept out of Scotland towards London in 1745, they met with success after lucky success.  The town of Carlisle was quickly surrounded and the English garrison was promised a safe passage out of the town if they surrendered their arms and left peacefully.   That is exactly what happened.

A skeleton garrison force was left behind, amongst them was an officer in Charlie's army of the Clan Gregor.  In 1746, when two English armies were chasing the Highlanders back into Scotland, the town was surrounded again, this time by English Hanoverian troops.

Naturally this garrison expected to be treated as they had treated the English when the fortunes of war were reversed.  Such was not the case.  The men were quickly rounded up and treated  as common criminals.  Those men from the ranks who took a renewed oath of allegiance to George II were pardoned.  The remainder were thrown into prisons where many perished from maltreatment.   However, they fared much better than their 3 officers, who were summarily sentenced to death by hanging and quartering.

That method of execution was terribly grisly as it combined hanging and then before death, the victim was cut into pieces.  Due to request by the town officials for mercy, the condemned men were allowed one letter each to family.  One such letter was sent by Lt. MacGregor to his wife, through a friend who was being pardoned and was returning to the Highlands.. 

An old Gaelic myth claims that a Highlander who dies outside his beloved homeland will return home through the underground.  So he told his friend "Ye take the high road and I'll take the low road, and I'll be in Scotland afore ye".

It became one of the most beloved and moving love songs ever written.  It was written in Gaelic, but the English version was called:

"The ballad of Loch Lomond".

180.  What was the response of the severely weakened Clan Gregor when King James VI awarded the Laird of Luss (hereditary Chief of the Clan Colquhoun) a  Royal permission to pursue the Clan Gregor with "Fire and Sword" (to decimate them at will)? 

The Chief of the Clan Gregor, Alasdair Mac Gregor of Glenstrae, sent the Fiery Cross throughout the entire south-west Highlands, and thereby gained the support of many Campbells, MacDonalds and Camerons.  The pending conflagration became a fight between a Highland (Scottish) force and a Lowland (Briton) force.   Although the MacGregors were outnumbered 2:1, the Colquhouns didn't stand a chance.  

The two parties met for a peace talk in the Colquhoun heartland, but the Laird of Luss had other ideas.  After an unsuccessful discussion, the MacGregors headed back home.  The Colquhouns waited in ambush on the return track but were outwitted by the MacGregors and were slaughtered.

181.  What was the result of this MacGregor victory?

King James VI was so enraged, he proscribed the entire Clan Gregor ,and the name, Gregor in 1603.  Although this unprecedented act served to outlaw the MacGregors and made them essentially landless, they continued to expand in numbers and strength under fabricated names.

182.  What was the British government's reaction to the failure of the proscription?

The government reaction was to regularly increase the severity of the proscription over the next several years.

183.  When did these proscriptions end, and why?

These punitive  laws stayed in effect until Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of Great Britain,  took over the British government in 1653, not because he had any sympathy for the MacGregors, but because he was totally against fanaticism.

184.  What was the retribution to Cromwell after his death?

When the Royalists returned to power in 1660, his corpse was dug up, hung in chains, and beheaded.

185.  After Cromwell's death, were the proscriptions against the MacGregors reinstated?  Why?

No, King Charles II maintained the lifting of the proscriptions because of the unbridled support the MacGregors had  given him in his fight for ascension to the throne.

186.  Were the properties formerly owned by the MacGregors ever given back to them as promised by Charles II?  Why?

No, due to the greater influence of the Campbells.

187.  What pseudonym did Sir Walter Scott give to the Chief of Clan Gregor in his classic poem "Lady of the Lake?"

"Roderick Dhu" on page 118, in Canto 5, chapter xv, line 1.

188.  What name did Sir Walter Scott give to Clan Gregor in The Lady of the Lake. (Note this epic poem was written while Clan Gregor was still proscribed).

Clan MacAlpine.

189.  What name did Sir Walter Scott give to the Campbells in "Lady of the Lake"?

"Dermid's Race" on page 146, in Canto VI, Chapter xiv, line 10. 

190.  By how much time did the Picts predate the Scots in north Britain?

8,000 years.

191.  What two popular phrases verify the precursor status  of the MacGregors in Scotland?

"The MacGregors are the Rock" and of their sept, the Fletchers, "They were the first to draw water in Argyle".

192.  What constituencies in two countries of Europe consider this as their "national" flag, and what impact does it have on Scotland?  What are its origins?

This is the flag adopted by the Brythonic Celts of Cornwall in England, and in Breton, France.

This is considered to be the legendary Cross of Saint David.

Its impact on Scotland is:  If the saltire cross of St. Andrew had not been adopted as the national flag of Albann,  this could quite possible be the present national flag of Scotland also.

(The Welsh later changed the colour of the cross to gold but retained the black background.)

193.  What is the origin of the English word "honest".

Believe it or not, the English word, "honest", was derived from the great Pict King, Onnust, and is still pronounced the same as it was back then.   (If anyone does not believe this, just check a Welsh dictionary for "honest").

194.  What was the actual origin of the foundation family of Dalriada?

According to a modern Scottish legend, Fergus, Lorne, and Angus, "sons of Erc", were the traditional founders of the principal foundation lines establishing the Scottish kingdom of Dalriada on the British mainland around 465AD.  The Scottish Chronicles listed these men  as Erc, Fergus, Loarn and Oengus.  What has not been mentioned in any Scottish tradition is that those four names were obviously of Pict origin, not Scot or Irish.  Erc was the recognized Gaelic translation of the earlier Pict Uerb (meaning  genuine in P-Celtic), later modified to Uerp, and finally Earp.  In their earlier Pict form, the three sons were actually: Uurgus, Llann and Onnus.  Fergus was the Gaelic translation of the earlier Pict Uurgus (meaning 'vigorous' in P-Celtic).  Loarn was a translation of the earlier Pict name, Llann, (meaning 'handsome' in P-Celtic).  Angus is the English translation of the earlier Gaelic, Oengus, which in turn, was a translation of the earlier Pict Onnus (meaning 'trustworthy' in P-Celtic).

It must be remembered that the Picts preceded the Gaels to north Britain by thousands of years, and it is very unlikely these four Gaelic translated names miraculously appeared on their own. They were as described above, merely Gaelic translations of well-established Pict names;  e.g. Uuerb was a not uncommon Pict name, as an Uuerb was listed in the Pict Chronicles as the father of Drust, who reigned in Albann when St. Patrick arrived as a missionary in Ireland in 432 AD.  Another  Uuerb was listed  as being the father of the Great King Nehhtonn, who reigned from 455 to 480 AD.   Another Uerb was listed as the grandfather of  another King Nehhtonn, who reigned as King of Albann from 597 to 617 AD.  On the other hand, Uurc was a very rare name in Dalriada.  It was merely another example of the Gaels regressing a name by replacing a "P" with a hard "C" (after it had been modernized hundreds of years earlier by Celts on the European continent by replacing the hard "C" with a "P").  By themselves, Erc, Fergus, Lorne and Oengus have no meanings whatsoever in either the Irish or Scottish/Gaelic dictionaries, strongly indicating they were imported from another language.

195.  Is there any documented evidence of these claims?

Yes, in the following list of Dalriadic Kings, many with Pict names.


Names & Affiliations Date of Accession (AD) Duration of Reign Demise (AD)
Loarn with Uurgust, sons of Uurc (Uuerb) 503 3 506
Uurgust, son of Uurc  (Fergus) 503 3 506
Domangart, son of Uurgust  506 5 511
Comgal, son of Domangart 511 24 535
Gauran, son of Domangart 535 22 557
Conall I, son of Comgal 557 14 571
Aedan, son of Gauran 571 34 605
Eoacha'-Bui, son of  Aedan 605 16 621
Kinnid, son of Eoacha 621 1/4 621
Ferchar I, son of Eogan 621 16 636
Donal-Brec, son of Eoacha 637 5 642
Dungal with Conall II, grandson of Conall I 642 10 652
Donal-Duin, son of Conall II 652 13 665
Mael-Duin, son of Conall II 665 16 681
Uurgust-Uuada, grandson of Uurgust I 681 21 702
Eogan-Rinevel, son of Domangart 702 3 705
Ainbhcealach, son of Ferchar-Fada 705 1 706
Selvach, son of Ferchar-Fada  (ruled Lorn) 706 23 729
Duncha-Beg, (ruled Cantyr & Argyll)  706 14 720
Eogan III, (ruled Cantyr & Argyll)
  "          "   (ruled also over Lorn)
Muredach, son of Ainbhcealach 733 3 736
Eogan, son of Muredach 736 3 739
Aodh-Fin, son of Eoacha III 739 30 769
Uurgust, son of Aodh-Fin 769 3 772
Selvach II, son of Eogan 772 24 796
Eogan-Annuine IV, son of Aodh-Fin 796 30 826
Dungal, son of Selvach II 826 7 833
Alpin, son of Eoacha-Annuine IV 833 3 836
Kinnid, son of Alpin (Kenneth MacAlpin) 836 7 843
Note 1:  Names in blue are of P-Celtic and/or Pict origin.
Note 2:  Pict Kings who actually controlled Dalriada at times are omitted in this chart.

196.    Is there a chronological list of the Pict Kings that corresponds to the "Annals of Ulster" - with Pict names?

Series NAMES and FILIATIONS Date of Accession Duration of Reign (year) Date of End of Rule
1 DRUST I, son of Urb  (Reigned when St. Patrick arrived in Ireland as a missionary in 432 AD.)   451
2 TALORC I, son of Aniel 451 455
3 NEHHTONN I, son of Urb 455 25 480
4 DRUST II, son of Guidid 480 30 510
5 GALAM I, son of Etelig 510 12 522
6 DRUST III, son of Girom with DRUST, son of Udros 522 5 527
7 DRUST III, son of Girom, again 527 5 532
8 GARNARD I, son of Girom 532 7 539
9 GALAM II, son of Girom 539 1 540
10 TALORC II, son of Maelgwn 540 11 551
11 DRUST IV, son of Munait 552 1 553
12 GALAM II   (Died 580)

13 BRUD I, son of Maelgwn     (Columba converted him 565) 556 30 586
14 GARNARD II, son of Dommed 586 11 597
15 NEHHTONN II, grandson of Urb 597 20 617
16 KINNID I, son of Lutrin 617 16 633
17 GARNARD III, son of Uuid 636 4 637
18 BRUD II, son of Uuid 637 5 642
19 TALORC III, their brother  642 12 653
20 TALORC IV, son of Enfret (Defeated Dalriada invasion in 654) 653 4 657
21 GARNARD III, son of Dommed 657 6 1/2 663
22 DRUST V, his brother  (expelled in 672) 663 9 672
23 BRUD III, son of Bili (Defeated Saxon invasion in 685) 674 21 695
24 TARAN, son of Entifidit  (Expelled in 687) 695 4 697
25 BRUD IV, son of Derog 697 11 708
26 NEHHTONN III, son of Derog  (Abdicated to join monastery) 708 17 724
27 DRUST  VI (expelled by Alpin) (attempted to regain crown) 724 2 726
28 ALPIN  I (In 728, a 3 way civil war was fought) 727 2 729
29 ONNUST I, son of Uurgus. (conquered Dalriada & Ulster 741) 729 31 761
30 BRUD V, son of Uurgus   761 2 763
31 KINNID I, son of Uurdet  (Defeated Dalriada invasion in 768) 763 12 775
32 ALPIN II, son of Brud 775 3 1/2 779
33 DRUST VII, son of Talorc  779 1 780
34 TALORC V, son of Drust  (called "Black" Talorc) 780 2 782
35 TALORC VI, son of Onnust   784 786
36 CONALL I, son of Tadg  (Lost to Kastantin. Killed in 807) 786 5 791
37 KASTANTIN I, son of Uurgus  (Also King of Dalriada) 791 30 820
36 ONNUST  II, son of Uurgus    (Also King of Dalriada) 821 12 833
37 DRUST VII, son of Kastantin with TALORC son of Uuroid  833 3 836
38 UEN, son of Onnust  (Killed in battle against Vikings) 836 3 839
39 UUROID, son of Bargoit 839 3 842
40 BRUD VI, son of Uuroid     (slain by Kenneth MacAlpin) 842 1 843

197.  With the ascension  of Kenneth MacAlpin to the throne of Albann, did the Picts lose their blood lines in the royal lines of succession?

No, as can be seen in this chart of the Picto/Scot line of Kings of Albann.

(Names in blue are those of Pict origin)
Date of Accession (AD)
Duration of Reign (years)
Demise (AD)


843 16 858
DOMNALL MacALPIN, Kinnid's brother 858 4 862
KASTANTIN II, son of Kinnid (killed by Danish Vikings) 862 18 877
AODH, (Hugh or Ed), son of Kinnid (slain by Grig) 877 1 878
GRIG, son of Hugh Dungal (not related to MacAlpin family) 878 11 889
DOMNALL IV, son of Kastantin (killed by Norse Vikings) 889 7 900
KASTANTIN II, (Causantín mac Áeda) (Abdicated in 943) 900 40 943
MALCOM I, son of Donal IV  (Killed in battle at Stonehaven) 943 11 954
INDULF, son of Kastantin II (Won Lothian and Edinburgh)  953 8 962
DUB (or DUF), son of Malcom I (Fought civil war with Culen) 962 966
CULEN, son of Indulf  (Killed by Britons of Strathclyde) 967 5 971
AMLAIB, son of Indulf   (Tutored by Kinnid II) 973 4 977
KINNID II, son of Malcom I, killed by Uuinella (Finella) 971 24 995
KASTANTIN III, son of Culen  994 1 1/2 995
KINNID III son of Duf 997 8 1005
MALCOM II, son of Kinnid III 1005 30 1034
DUNCAN I grandson of Malcom II (Sickly, killed by MacBeth) 1034 6 1040
MacBETH, son of Uunnlehh (Findlaich in Gaelic) 1040 17 1057
LULACH, gr grandson of Kinnid II, (his mother was Gruohh) 1056 1  1/2 1057
MALCOM III, son of Duncan I 1058 36 1093
DONALBANE, son of Duncan I  (deposed) 1093 6 months 1094
DUNCAN II, son of Malcom III 1094 6 months 1094
DONALBANE (restored) (later deposed) 1094 3 1097
EDGAR, son of Malcom III 1097 10 1107
ALASDAIR I, son of Malcom III 1107 17 1124
DAVID I, son of Malcom III 1124 29 1153
MALCOM IV, grandson of David I 1153 11 1164
WILLIAM I, grandson of David I 1165 49 1214
ALASDAIR II, son of William I 1214 35 1249
ALASDAIR III, son of Alasdair II 1249 37 1286
This line of Monarchs was terminated when Alasdair III's two sons died before adulthood.
His only daughter, Margaret, married King Eric II of Norway before herself dying at sea.
A period of turmoil followed wherein England's Edward I seized control of Scotland.
A series of revolts under William Wallace, then Robert Bruce finally led to Scotland's legal independence.

198.  What Celtic jurisdiction in the United Kingdom has an ancient flag which at a distance resembles the German N.S.D.A.P. swastika?

The flag of the Isle of Man  (The Manx flag)

Why the three leg (Trie Cassyn) symbol was adopted by the Isle of Man is unknown, but its existence can be traced as far back as the thirteenth century.  It was first used as the coat of arms or armorial bearings by island kings from Norway.  By the fourteenth century, the symbol was to be found on the Manx Sword of State and by the seventeenth century it was to be seen on the coinage of the Isle of Man.

199.  Where, and how much land did Rob Roy MacGregor actually own?

About 6,720 acres.   It extended from the Allt Rostan near the head of Loch Lomond eight miles down the eastern shore to near Rowardennan, including the entire west flank of Ben Lomond, its northern spurs, and the west end of Loch Arklet.

200.  (a) What is the institution in Scotland that is responsible for preserving cultural and historical objects?  (b) Has it protected MacGregor properties?

(a) The National trust of Scotland.  In its own literature, it describes itself as "Scotland's leading conservation charity and cares for Scotland's heritage".
(b) No, it allowed Lanrick Castle, former home of Clan Gregor, and known as "MacGregor House" for centuries, to become decrepit, and be demolished in 2002 without as much as a whimper.  The demolisher received a slap on the wrist fine of £1,000.00,  when normally such a transgression would bring a fine of £20,000.00.  This outrage illustrates that Scotland's government has no consideration whatsoever for Clan Gregor or its legacy.

Beautiful and decrepid Lanrick Castle, situated between Doune and Callander.  It was called "MacGregor House" for centuries.  It is sad that modern Scotland values so little genuine highland culltural heritage sites such as this.  The castle was demolished in xxx.
Decrepit Lanrick Castle
(between Doune and Callander) before its demolition.
The District of Stirling took no action to protect it.

201.  What Scottish breed of cattle was named after both the greatest of the Pict Kings and the greatest Roman Emperor?  Hints:  It comes in two colours, and is recognized as the choicest beef on the market. 

Angus:  Originally derived from Onnust, the greatest of the Pict Kings, which was the Pict translation of Augustus.  (Explanation:  As the Picts became more aware of the outside world, they developed a penchant for naming their sons after famous foreign leaders.)  In turn, the old Gaelic translation of Onnust was Oengus, which later became the modern Gaelic; Aonghus, and was eventually anglicized to Angus.  If it had not been for that Pict naming trend, the name "Angus" would not exist. 

202.  What three P-Celts (Picts) are represented in the British Union Jack flag?

1. King Onnust (from his dream of a white saltire cross of St. Andrew before the battle of Athelstaneford)
2. Maewyn Succat [baptized Patricius (St. Patrick) by the Roman Catholic Church] from the red saltire cross)
3. St. David (Patron saint of the Celts of Wales, Cornwall and Breton) from the white cross.

203.  Was Saint George, the patron saint of England, a native Englishman?  Where else is St. George recognized as a patron saint?

No, he was a soldier in the Roman army, born in Greek Anatolia, now modern Turkey. (He never set foot in England.)
Other countries/jurisdictions  that officially recognize St. George as their patron saint are (alphabetically): Aragon, Canada, Catalonia, China, Ethiopia, Georgia, Montenegro, Palestine, Portugal, Russia and Serbia, as well as the cities of Amersfoort, Beirut, Ferrara, Freiburg, Genoa, Ljubljana, and Moscow. 

204.  Was Saint David a P-Celt?  What is his life story?

Yes.  David was the son of the King of part of Ceredigion. He was conceived through the rape of his mother, the daughter of Lord Cynyr of Caer Goch, in Pembrokeshire in Wales. She gave birth to him on a cliff top during a violent storm.  David was educated at Whitland in Carmarthenshire under Saint Paulinus of Wales. 

He became renowned as a teacher and preacher, founding monastic settlements and churches in Wales, Cornwall and Brittany in a period when neighbouring tribal regions were still mostly pagan. He presided over two synods, as well as going on pilgrimages to Jerusalem. (where he was anointed as a bishop by the Patriarch of Jerusalem and by the Pope in Rome.  St. David's Cathedral now stands on the site of the monastery he founded in the remote and inhospitable valley of 'Glyn Rhosyn' in Pembrokeshire.

St. David's Cathedral

205.  Is there a modern day example of Pict vernacular in Scotland where a 'W' is pronounced as an 'F' ?

Yes.  In Fife and Angus, 'What's wrong with you today?' is spoken as ' Fit's rang wi ye the day?

206.  What was the inspiration for the MacGregor Coat of Arms?

MALCOLM MACGREGOR Laird of GlenOrchy during the reign of David 1 (1124-1153)  led his clan in his sovereign's army which invaded England 1135-1138 to assist Matilda, Countess of Anjou, in her unsuccessful effort to win the crown of England. 

In the ancient chronicles, Malcolm is called "Morair Callum nan Caistel" (Lord Malcolm of the Castles), because of several castles occupied by him. The traditions described him as a man of Herculean size and strength.  It is related of him that while in the royal retinue at a great hunting party, the young King Malcolm IV (reigned 1153-1165) became in dire peril from the attack of a wild boar; Malcolm offered his assistance, whereupon the King assented, saying. "E'en do, bait spair nocht".

Thereupon, Malcolm tore out an oak tree from the ground and rushing between his sovereign and the infuriated boar, with the oak in one hand he kept the animal at bay, while wielding his sword with the other, until he succeeded in running it through the beast's heart. In memory of this exploit the King conferred on Malcolm for a coat-of-arms; a sword with a crown on its point, crossed with an oak tree. From this circumstance were derived the MacGregor arms, crest and motto, as already heraldically described and emblazoned.  These or similar arms appear on MacGregor seals of the fifteenth century, and also in an illuminated manuscript, now in the Lyon Herald's Office, Edinburgh, compiled about 1565, in which this emblazon is assigned to "Lord Mak Gregour of Ould"

207.  What direct descendent of the Great King Nehhtonn attained the highest levels in the Canadian Armed Forces - including Chief of the General Staff, Minster of National Defence, a Companion of the Order of the Bath, founder of Canada's national airline, inventor of precision artillery barrages, inventor of the cathode ray tube direction finder,  President of the National Research Council, President of the United Nations Security Council, and declined an appointment as Canada's Governor General?

General A.G.L. MacNaughton (son of Nehhtonn) PC, CH, CB, CMG, DSO, CD (1887 – 1966).

He was born in Moosomin, Saskatchewan, on 25 February 1887 and studied at McGill University.  In May 1909, he was commissioned a Provisional Lieutenant, and graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in 1910.  That same year, he was appointed Lieutenant in the 3rd Montreal Battery, Canadian Field Artillery.

In 1911, he was promoted Captain, and represented the Canadian Field Artillery in Britain. On return to Canada, he resumed his studies, gaining a Master of Science and Electrical Engineering degree.  He lectured at McGill in hydro-electrical subjects during 1912-13, later entering private practice.  On 28 May 1913, he was promoted Major, and appointed to command the 3rd Battery.

In September 1914, he was appointed to command the 4th Battery and embarked for England, arriving in France on 9 February 1915.  In April, he was wounded during the second battle of Ypres and invalided to England.  In October, he transferred to the 2nd Division Artillery returning to the front in January 1916 with the 6th Howitzer Brigade.  He subsequently commanded the 21st Howitzer Battery,  was promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel, and given command of the 11th Brigade, Canadian Field Artillery.  In July 1916, he was seconded to the Canadian Corps Headquarters as Counter-Battery Officer – his work in devising innovative techniques, new equipments and the use of aircraft to locate enemy guns was recognized with the award of the Distinguished Service Order.  His near perfect barrage at Valenciennes incorporating the well-planned use of smoke, the accurate use of counter-fire, and with particular care taken to reduce damage to civilian life and property, remain to this day a classic example of the gunners’ art.  He was credited with the invention of the “Box Barrage”, although he professed it to be more the result of evolution rather than invention.  For these and other actions he was thrice Mentioned-in-Dispatches, and appointed Companion of the Order of the Bath.  During the final months of the war, at the battle of Soissons he was again wounded.

On returning to Canada he was appointed to the Permanent Force.  In 1919, he was a member of the Committee for Reorganization of the Militia, appointed Brevet Colonel and to the General List.  He became Deputy Chief of the Defence Staff in 1923 and in 1928 was appointed District Officer Commanding Militia District 11.  He was promoted Major-General and appointed Chief of the General Staff on 1 January 1929.  Subsequently he was seconded as President of the National Research Council.

At the outbreak of hostilities in 1939, he was appointed to the Canadian Army Special Force in the rank of Major-General and as General Officer Commanding, the 1st Canadian Division.  As the Canadian Army grew he moved on to command the Canadian Corps and the 1st Canadian Army in the rank of Lieutenant-General.  In February 1944, at age 58, he returned to Canada and was promoted to full General. In November 1944, he was sworn in as Minister of National Defence. 

He was offered the Governor-Generalship but refused that honour believing he could be more use to Canada as a Minister in the War time government.  He remained in this portfolio until August 1948.  Among his long and exceptional listing of accomplishments in the service of his country as a citizen soldier, scientist and statesman are the development of the Cathode Ray Direction Finder, the co-development of the Vickers Vedette flying boat, the building of Trans-Canada Airways, the development of the discarding sabot round, the establishment of the National Aviation Museum, the establishment of unemployment relief camps and service as President of the United Nations Security Council.  He was keenly interested in conservation and was among the first to plead for the preservation of Canada’s energy resources. General MacNaughton's entire life was one of service to Canada.  Men of his calibre are rare national treasures.   A true specimen of Pict nobility!

208.  What is the history of the Clan Naughton? 

MacNaughton family crestDerived from the Pict, Nehhtonn, (Gaelic = Neachdainn), Anglicized to Nechtan, then Naughton, meaning "pure one".

Many members of the Nehhtonn family moved to northern Ireland in the AD400s, and were included in the Irish Picts who the Gaels called "Cruithne".  Some eventually changed their surname to Norton.

Clan "Nechtan" was established in Strathtay in the 12th century, forcibly transferred there from Moray by Malcolm IV, who imported Norman and Saxon aristocrats to replace old Celtic families in the north, and  expelled them to areas of the south, in an effort to eliminate the power of regional Chiefs.  Their possessions extended over the upper part of Loch Awe, Glenarn, Glenshira and Loch Fyne. Gilchrist MacNaughton was granted the castle and island of Fraoch Eilean in Loch Awe by Alexander III in 1267.

In addition, Gilchrist also held Dunderave on Loch Fyne and the castle of Dubh Loch in Glenshira.  As the MacNaughtons were allied to the MacDougalls of Lorne, their chief, Donald MacNaughton, opposed Robert the Bruce (as did the Comyns in the north and the MacGregors of Glen Orchy). On Robert becoming King, the MacNaughtons lost many of their lands in Argyll to the Campbells.  However Donald's son, Duncan, loyally supported King David II, who rewarded his son Alexander with lands in the Isle of Lewis. Sir Alexander, chief of the clan during the reign of James IV fell with his King at Flodden in 1513.

Both Charles II, and James VII, had intended to confer substantial honours on the MacNaughton chiefs, the former with a charter of the hereditary sheriffship of Argyll, and the latter with a commission as steward and hereditary bailie of all the lands which he and his ancestors had ever possessed; but in the former case the patent, by reason of some court intrigue, never passed the seals, and in the second case, though the deed was signed by the king, and counter-signed by the Earl of Perth, its purpose was defeated by the outbreak of the Revolution of 1688.

The MacNaughtons continued to be loyal to the Stewarts both during the wars of Charles I, and at the revolution of 1688 that overthrew James VII, for which they lost their estates in 1691.  The 17th and last chief of the MacNaughtons was John of Dundarave who fell out with Campbell of Ardkinglas whose daughter he was to marry.  MacNaughton thought he was to marry the younger daughter with whom he was in love.  However, after taking too much refreshment prior to the ceremony, he discovered he'd been wed to the eldest daughter.  On realizing his predicament, he promptly deserted his new wife, and eloped to Ireland with his true love, the second daughter.  Campbell of Ardkinglas gained possession of the MacNaughton estates on the grounds of "incest", and the chiefship became vacant.  (Another typical Campbell plot to steal land).

In 1818, the Lord Lyon King of Arms accepted Edmund A. MacNaghton of Bushmills Co. Antrim as chief of the clan.  His descendant, Sir Patrick MacNaghton of Dundarave County, Antrim in Northern Ireland, is the present-day chief. 

Septs in Scotland of the Clan Naughton are: Kendrick, Hendry, MacHenry, Maceol, MacBrayne, MacHendry, MacKendrick, MacKenrick, Macknight, MacNair, MacNayer, MacNiven, MacNuir, MacNuyer, MacVicar, Niven, Weir, MacKendrick, Mackenrick, Macnight, Macnayers, Macbraynes, Henderson, Eanruig,  McNitt.

Modern name variations:   MacNaughton, MacNaghton, O'Neachtain, Naughton, MacNachtan. Norton.

Clann MacNaughton tartan

209.  By what modern name do the descendants of the greatest of the Pict Kings, Onnust, go by?


Ogilvie derives from the Pict word "Ocel Fa", meaning high plain.  The Earl of Angus, founder of this clan, was a descendant of the ancient house of Onnust, the greatest of the Pict Kings.  It was in this province that the Angles from Northumbria were defeated in 685, putting a halt to their northward expansion.

Their descendants became the hereditary Sheriffs of Angus.  A Sheriff Ogilvie was killed in the battle of Harlaw in 1411 AD.  His son, Sir Walter, became Lord High Treasurer, and built the tower of Airlie.

The castle of the chief, the 'bonnie hoos o' Aairlie' was destroyed in 1640 in one of the blackest crimes of the Campbells.  The first Earl was with Charles at York at the outset of the Civil War when Argyll used his position as a Covenanting leader to pursue his private vendetta against his absent  neighbour.

The 2nd Earl was captured at Montrose's defeat in 1645 at Philiphaugh and condemned to death.  But he escaped from prison on the eve of his execution, and his descendant had an equally lucky escape in the '45, and fled to France.  However, he was able to return under a pardon in 1783.

210.  What was the relationship between the Picts and the P-Celtic "Britons" of Strathclyde?

The Picts were the aboriginal inhabitants of all Britain including northern Albann, and appeared there about 8,000 BC.  The Britons were the P-Celtic inhabitants of southern Albann, and appeared there about 400 BC.  The Britons introduced the Iron Age to Albann, and influenced the Picts  through trade and a more advanced culture, not conquest.  By 300AD, the P-Celtic language had displaced the old Orcadian Pict language all the way to the Shetland Islands.  However, in the north of Scotland, they still speak with Pict accents.

Tacitus reported in 80AD that the Caledonians were the horsemen and the Britons were their infantry.  However, it must be realized the Romans reported other civilizations as being in their own likeness.  It is known that the Britons or Southern Picts as they were later called, were not conquered by the northern Picts, and were in fact an independent Kingdom.  Even Onnust could not take their impregnable fortress of Dumbarton.  It is now certain the two peoples formed a temporary alliance to jointly repel the Romans than for one to have had dominion over the other.Harold Macmillan

211.  Who was the second-last Pict-descendant Prime Minister of the United Kingdom?

Harold MacMillan, who served 1957 - 1963.





212.  Who was the last Pict-descendant Prime Minister of the United Kingdom?

For the period; 18 October 1963 - 16 October 1964, Sir Alec Douglas Home, renounced his peerage to become UK Prime Minister.

Upon his return to the House of Lords, he took the title, Lord Home of the Hirsel.


213.  Where exactly did the term Scot come from?

The Romans gave them a derisive slang; 'Scoti', which is derived from an Irish verb, 'SCOILT', meaning to split, divide, or cause a rift.  Therefore, with its unique Irish connotation,  "Scoti" would have meant those people from Ireland who split apart (plunder).

Similarly, the term, "Picti", meant those people who paint themselves.


214.  What was this Pict fixation with 'U' that is so different than other languages?

"U" was not a popular vowel in any Celtic language.  However, the unique Germanic Orcadian/Pict language found it attractive for its many variations.  For example, "UU was used similar to the German 'W' in that it was pronounced as 'FE'.  A sole 'U' was pronounced as an I or an E, and still is in southern Wales.

This fixation persisted in the north of Albann even after the assimilation of the old Pict language by the north Britain 'Welsh' P-Celtic dialect.  This lead to several later weird phonetic translations into Gaelic, such as - 'Uurgus' became 'Fearghus', then Fergus, 'Onnus' became 'Oenghus' then 'Aonghus', eventually Angus, 'Uuroid' became 'Feroid' in the north and 'Uchtred' in the south, 'Brud' became 'Bridei' then 'Brodie', 'Drus' became 'Drest', then Theresa. 

In many instances, the unique Pict/Celtic wordage was more efficient (in its lettering) than were the guttural Gaelic translations.
Note: Similar to Latin inscriptions, Pict inscriptions wrote "U' as 'V', leading to misunderstandings by transcribers.

215.  Why is the modern Welsh language so similar to the extinct P-Celtic language of southern Scotland ?

In 367 AD, the unthinkable happened.  The Picts, Scots and Saxons all attacked Hadrian's Wall in a surprise mass attack.  The Roman defences were swamped, and the raiders pillaged northern England at will.  Emperor Theodosius brought an army to England and chased them out, and the powerful Roman allies, the Britons of the area between the Antonnine Wall and Hadrian's Wall were mobilized into auxiliary legions. 

The Dumnonii of the west (Strathclyde) and the Votadini of the east (Gododdin) were organized into three infantry and six cavalry regiments numbering 5,000 men.  The Votadini regiments under Cunedda (a Roman-Briton) marched from Hadrian's Wall to north Wales to drive out Scoti invaders who were settling down to stay.  In 390 AD, Cunedda drove out the Scoti, and his army stayed there as garrison troops.  The descendants of his army founded the kingdom of Gynedd in North Wales.

216.  What was the origin of the Red Dragon on the flag of Wales? 

Cunedda's descendants and his Votadini regiments established themselves on the corn-growing island of Anglesey, and their power extended along the Welsh coast between the Roman bastions of Chester and Caernarvon.  The kings of Gwynedd bore the title of island dragon, a reference to their dragon standard.  From this evolved "Y Ddraig Goch" - the Red Dragon of Wales.

217.  Where did the terms 'Welsh' and 'Wales' actually come from?

'Welsh' and 'Wales' are of Teutonic origin, not Celt.  They were brought over from Europe by the Germanic Angles and Saxons in the fifth century.  The Anglo-Saxon 'Walas', indicating 'strangers', was derived from earlier contact in middle Europe between Teutonic-speaking peoples and the great Celtic tribe, the Volcae.  Those Teutonic peoples used their version of this name for all strangers, although, as they pressed westwards, these continued to be mainly Celts.

218.  What was the Pict equivalent to these terms?

The fair-skinned Picts called the Celts 'Du-Gal', literally - 'dark-skinned Gaul', which became the surnames 'Dougal' in Welsh, and later, 'Dungall' in Gaelic, then, eventually 'MacDougal' and MacDungall.

 219.  How did the Greeks derive the terms, 'Iernê', 'Albion' and 'Pretannic'? How did these terms affect 'Irish', 'Albann' and 'Britain'?

These are Greek forms of the names that were referred to them by the Celtic inhabitants of the city of Tartessos, near the Pillars of Hercules, in the 6th century BC.  Whether these terms were originally the actual names of those places in the inhabitants' own languages or were the names allotted to those islands by the Tartessians will never be known for sure.

Tartessians had been trading with the inhabitants of the two large 'Pretannic' islands of 'Iernê' and 'Albion' for some time, especially in the tin trade, as tin was a big export commodity of those islands.

From their city state of Massilia (present day Marseilles in southern France), sea-faring Greek traders began trading with the two islands by way of Tartessos.

When the Carthaginians seized Tartessos about 500 BC, and blocked further access by  Greek traders to the Atlantic via Tartessos, contact with those islands was maintained by venturing overland through friendly Celtic, Oestrimnides, territory.

Greek names and culture impressed the islanders, and that influence resulted in these names becoming popular.

Therefore, any inhabitants the Greeks encountered on the coast of Albion would have been called 'Albiones'.  The Greek, "Albion", eventually became the Celtic, Albann, in North Britain.  "Pretannic" eventually became Britannic, in Latin (due to a Roman mispronunciation), then Briton in English.

Those on the coast of Iernê would have been called Iernês by the Greeks.  Iernê may have came from the old Irish, Ériu, and eventually became Éire in modern Irish, and Ireland in English.  Iernês eventually became Irish in English. 

220.  What was the "Betrayal of Trust" by the Romans that inspired the Celtic sack and occupation of Rome?  What price did the Romans pay for that betrayal?  What price did the Celts pay?

About the year 400 BC, under their king, Ambicatus, the Celts poured into northern Italy and fought the Etruscans for living space.  At the same time, the Romans were pressing on the Etruscans from the south.  This brought about an alliance of convenience between the Romans and the Celts.  In 391 BC, the Celts laid siege to Clusium, a stronghold of the Etruscans.   During that siege, the Celts recognized certain Romans who had earlier come to them in the sacred character of ambassadors, fighting in the ranks of the enemy. 

The Celts applied to the Roman authorities for satisfaction for the treachery of those envoys but the Romans refused to listen to their claims.  The Celts then abandoned the siege of Clusium, and marched straight to Rome, bypassing all towns and fortifications enroute.  "We are bound for Rome" was the cry of the Celts as they passed provincial towns and terrified guards, showing perfect discipline.

On July 18, 390 BC, a great battle took place at Allia, a few miles south of Rome, where the Roman army was annihilated.  For a year, Celts were masters of Rome, until a great fine was exacted and full vengeance was realized for the perfidy of Clusium.  This defeat and ensuing occupation was the greatest shame in the history of Rome, and they never forgave the Celts for that.

In the ensuing centuries, the Romans annually strove for revenge, enslaved the Celts, and finally wiped all trace of the Gaullic language from Europe and Asia.

221.   What was the original source of the name "Gregor"? The early Greek explorer/traders had a great influence on the Picts. They imparted stories about their gods, their legends and their alphabet to the Picts. One demigod, who greatly impressed the Picts was Heracles (in Greek) (later, Hercules in Latin). Heracles was a demigod son of Zeus and was the strongest man who ever lived. He was often referred to as the “Conqueror”. Celts were known to speak with a harsher vernacular than did Romans in their related Latin. .

It must be remembered that linguists universally agree Greek, Latin and Gaullish (GLG) were one language in 1500 BC. For example both the “foreign” “H” sound and the hard “C” sound in Greco/Latin became a hard “G” sound in classical Celtic, Pictish & the later Cumbric. For other examples in Pictic; Apollo became Polnann, Augustus became Onnuss, Neptune became Nehhtonn (pronounced Nekton), Constantine became Kast, Zeus became Dios, Jupiter became Upidd and Thor became Tallorhh, (somewhat similar to how it is pronounced in French)..

Note: These names had nothing to do with Celtic, contrary to some historical accounts. They were direct Greek/Latin/Norse to Pictish translations. Heracles in Greek, became Hercules in classical Latin, Ciric in street Latin (pronounced Kirik), Gireg in Gaullish, Goreg in old Welsh, Grygor in modern Welsh, Grig in Pictish & Cumbric, translated to Cirig (pronounced Kirig) in old Scottish Gaelic, Grioghair in modern Gaelic, and eventually, Gregor in English..

So our surname, MacGregor, literally means Son of Hercules. Note: It is universally agreed, Clan Gregor emanated from the High King, Grig MacDungall, a Pict of Fortriu, who reigned 878 - 889AD.b>

222. What were the effects of Greeks from Masillia (Marseilles) trading with northern Picts as early as 1,000BC? How did it affect Pict develoment?

Greek trade brought the northern Picts into the iron age much sooner than it happened to some other parts of northwest Europe. It also brought Greek culture to northern Britain, which competed with the West Norse for influence. Perhaps most important, it brought them literacy.

Due to this early iron technology, the Pict Dal n'Arradd tribe at Kintyre were able to successfully invade Antrim about 750BC with superb war chariots and iron technology, and dominate Ireland militarily for one thousand years..

To see the list of Pict kings in Ulster, from 750BC to 1201 AD, check out "Picts of the Ulladd" on this website.

They were able to embark on a huge national project to build over one hundred huge 'Brochs' around the entire Albann coast within 100 years (100BC to 0BC), to use as lookouts and temporary refuges from sea raiders. They were able to form a strong central government and Empire, to expand their boundaries south deep into Celtic territory to as far as the Humber River (where the Romans first encountered their mounted scouts in 71AD).

They expanded north to encompass the Orkneys, Shetlands, Faroes, and Tulli (Iceland), They established a presence in Tulli about 250BC, and traded with the Dorset Eskimoes of Baffin Island, Canada, in Walrus tusks. Refer to Farley Mowat's Book, 'The Farfarers'. ISBN-10: 0385659261. .

This early iron technology enabled the Picts to obtain the confidence to overcome four Roman legions, when Agricola attacked them in the 83/84AD winter campaign. The Romans never ventured north into the Pict heartland again (Inverness/Aberdeenshire). Tacitus invented a battle which never happened, fourteen years after the fact, to explain the losses in men and material. For the Roman public's consumption, he claimed the Picts were forced to fight because their grainhouses were being burned. The truth is, the Picts fed their cows a mixture of pulverized seaweed and dried herring. There were no grain houses! However, the Roman public could relate to that outright lie.

Note: Pict Brochs and several of their stone fortifications were the best form of drystone masonry ever seen on the planet to date.

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Note: This background tartan is faded MacGregor of  GlenGyle.